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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 notes

Course Code
BIOL 1001
Tamara Kelly

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Chapter 3 Notes BIOL 1001
3.1: Biodiversity
-Biodiversity: The richness of living systems as reflected in genetic variability within
and among species, the number of species living on Earth and the variety of communities
and ecosystems.
-Biosphere: All regions of Earth’s crust, waters and atmosphere that sustain life.
-One way to organize organisms is according to how they obtain carbon; either
autotrophs or heterotrophs.
-Autotrophs: An organism that produces its own food using carbon dioxide and other
inorganic compounds from its environment and energy from the sun or from oxidation of
inorganic substances. (Oxides containing carbon are considered an organic molecule).
-Inorganic molecule: A molecule without carbon atoms in its structure
-Organisms can also be divided according to their energy source; chemotrophs, which
obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic or organic substances or phototrophs which obtain
energy from light.
Carbon Source Oxidation of Molecules
(energy source)
Light (energy source)
CO2 Chemoautotroph: found in
some bacteria and archeans,
not found in eukaryotes
Photoautotroph: found in
some photosynthetic
bacteria, in some protists
and plants
Organic Molecules Chemoheterotroph: found
in some bacteria and
archeans and also in
protists, fungi, animals and
Photoheterotroph: found
in some photosynthetic
Hierarchy of life
1. Cell: smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independently or as
part of a multicellular organism
2. Multicellular organism: individual consisting of interdependent cells
3. Population: group of individuals of the same kind (the same species) that occupy
the same area
4. Community: populations of all species that occupy the same area
5. Ecosystem: group of communities interacting with their shared physical
environment (abiotic factors)
6. Biosphere: all regions of Earth’s crust, waters and atmosphere that sustain life
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