- Mutation in tumor cells that generate altered peptides that are presented in MHC I
- Expression of viral antigens in transformed cells
- Oncofetal tumor antigens: Result from mutation-induced reactivation of certain fetal or
embryonic genes. Normally only appear early in embryonic development, before the
immune system acquires immunocompetence.
- Overexpression of normal proteins (growth factors and growth factor receptors)
Immunosurveillance: immune system continually monitors for and destroys neoplastic cells.
Phase1, Elimination: cancer cells are recognized by the immune system via their tumor antigens
and targeted for destruction. In the process, some cells acquire mutations that allow them to resist