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ADMS 2600 Human Resources Management Textbook Notes

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York University
Human Resources Management
HRM 2600
Glenn Belanger

ishADMS 2600 Human Resources Management Notes Chapter 1: The World of Human Resources Management Why Study HRM uman resources management- process of managing human talent to achieve an orgs objectives -we have to understand human behavior to work with people effectively -we must also be aware of economic, technological, social, legal, global issues *fig 1.1* -hr provides work environment that meets employees ST and LT needs The following issues have been constantly brought up for the past decade: Competing, Recruiting, Staffing Globally -competition and cooperation with foreign companies has become an important focal point for business -globalization has offered customers anything, anytime, anywhere -even well known products are losing national identity; BMW is German, is now built in South Carolina Globalization- trend toward opening up foreign markets to intl trade and investment -there is no such thing as a Canadian car as different parts come from different countries -free trade agreements have sped up the pace of globalization; GATT, NAFTA, APEC, WTO -manufacturing jobs have been lost to low wage nations -some worry that free trade is creating a have/have not economy in which developing countries are being exploited by companies in richer and developed countries Corporate social responsibility- firm acting in the best interests of people and communities affected by its activities; has been a new focus of many corporations in recent years -companies discover being socially responsible helps the bottom line -one of Rs roles is to implement corporate citizenship throughout the organization -to go global, they have to balance a set of issues related to different demographics, laws, cultures -having to translate materials to different languages can be a challenge for firms -training programs are implemented to enhance managers understanding of other cultures Embracing New Technology -organizations are changing the way they do business -e-commerce has rapidly become the norm for many firms -virtual workers who work from home, hotel, anywhere -people can also search for jobs on social networking websites -advanced technology increases the number of jobs that require higher skills Knowledge workers- those whose responsibilities expand to include richer activities -includes decision making, planning, problem solving -current employees are being retrained to assume new roles and responsibilities -technology, transportation, communications spend the most on training -Manpower Inc. offers free info tech training through its training and development center uman Resources Information System (RIS)- computerized system that provides current data for purposes of control and decision making -organizations determined to improve productivity and lower costs are finding R good place to start -one of the big trends in recent years has been toward RIS self-service; allowing managers to access employee records and allowing employees to change their benefits/personal information -this helped with paper reduction and less paperwork -software is now used to recruit, screen, pretest before hiring, and training, track, promote -managers can search online for talent by searching candidates categorized by skill set -employees can use software to see their own goals & mark their progress, as well as see other peoples -helps align their personal goals with companys so they can reach higher levels -to choose a RIS is evaluate the biggest issues they experience, then choose applications that have the strongest impact on the firms financial measures, then calculate the costs that could be saved by using it Other factors that need to be evaluated include: -fit of the application to the firms employee base (location of employees) -ability to upgrade or customize the software (costs) -compatibility with current systems -user friendliness -availability of technical support -time required to implement and train staff members -initial costs and annual maintenance costs The biggest advantage to RIS is concentration of R on firms strategic direction and its earnings -the systems allow info to be shared with managers,thus better production practices,cost control solutions Managing Change -being able to manage change has become a core competency sought by organizations Reactive change- when external forces have already affected an organizations performance Proactive change- initiated to take advantage of targeted opportunities -2/3 of firms believe managing change is their biggest challenge -80% of firms reported some type of change initiative in their companies -most of the reasons change efforts fail is due to R issues: -not establishing a sense of urgency -not creating a powerful coalition to guide the effort -lacking leaders who have a vision -lacking leaders who communicate the vision -not removing obstacle to the new vision or motivating employees -not systematically planning for and creating ST wins -declaring victory too soon -not anchoring changes in corporate culture or failing to maintain the change momentum -change is continuous and a part of the job, rather than temporary -to manage change, managers, execs, R must envision the future, communicate it to employees, set clear expectations, and develop the capability to execute by reorganizing people Key elements include: -linking change to the business strategy -creating quantifiable benefits -engaging key employees, customers, and suppliers early -integrating required behavior changes -leading clearly, consistently -investing to implement and sustain change -communicating continuously and personally -selling commitment to the change, not communication about the change Managing Talent or uman Capital uman capital- knowledge, skills, capabilities of individuals that have economic value to an orgn -has tremendous impact on an organizations performance -staffing programs, jobs fair helps identify those with good talent -when valued employees leave, they take their human capital with them and any investment the company has made in them is now lost -staffing programs focus on recruiting and hiring the best; training programs are implemented to train and provide skill enhancement that cant really be transferred to another company if they leave -the most highly valued intelligence that employees have is that from experience -managers also have to provide employees with jobs that allow them to grow and learn -developmental assignments are a valuable way of facilitating knowledge and mutual learning -effective communication is instrumental in sharing knowledge -R programs help pass knowledge among employees; companies use software in which employees talents and lessons learned are posted -R managers play an important role in creating an organization that understands value of knowledge, shows the skills available to the organization, finding ways to use skills to benefit the firm Responding to the Market -meeting customer expectations requires quality, innovation, variety, and responsiveness Total quality management (TQM)- understanding customer needs, doing things right the first time, striving for continuous improvement -when TQM initiatives work, it is usually due to managers making major changes in R programs Six Sigma- method of translating customers needs into separate tasks and defining the best way to perform each task -it catches mistakes before they happen; reduced to only 3.4 defects per million -begins w/ team formation,extends to training,performance management,communication,culture, rewards -going through Six Sigma training they can move from Green Belt to Black Belt status -important quality improvement techniques are employee motivation,corp. culture change,employee edu -organizations known for product and service quality believe employees are the key to that quality -TQM helped R departments progress from a focus on functional activities to strategic planning Reengineering- rethinking and redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed -requires managers to start over, rethink how work should be done, how tech and people should interact, how entire organizations should be structured -managers must create an environment for change; effective leadership and communication processes; administrative systems to be reviewed and modified Containing Costs -firms are under pressure to improve productivity to maximize their efficiency and keep competitive prices -labour costs are one of the largest expenditures of any firm -to enhance productivity, firms are also looking to downsizing, outsourcing, offshoring, employee leasing Downsizing- planned elimination of jobs -in 1990s layoffs encompassed white-collar workers in greater numbers in knowledge intensive industries -engineering, accounting, information technology, architecture -downsizing is continually used by companies to adjust to changes in technology, globalization -while some firms improve efficiency with layoffs, some do not obtain the same benefits -layoffs can also backfire when new costs are needed in rehiring, pension payoffs, potential lawsuits -companies that avoid downsizing benefit from more productive workforce, higher customer satisfaction, workers who arent afraid to innovate when they know their job is safe -to downsize intelligently, employees are retrained for new positions and workdays are decreased to 4 Outsourcing- hiring someone outside the company to perform business processes -outsourcing is done when companies want to focus on what their company does best Offshoring- shifting work to overseas locations; 40-60% of labour costs can be saved -managers are finding that if they offshore, they can rescue failing businesses, make b
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