KINE 1000 Chapter Notes -Yao Ming, Institutional Racism, Masculinity

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Race and Ethnicity – Making Chinese-Canadian masculinities in Vancouver’s Physical
Education Curriculum. By: Brad Millington, Patricia Vertinsky, Ellexis Boyle, Brian Wilson
- Males of Chinese descent = victims of discrimination (obvious and subtle)
- Racism = linked to ideas about class, gender and the body
Introduction (in text = good summary of entire article)
- Study: done by Millington at an all-boys PE class at a Vancouver high school
- Millington found a dominant white male student that was especially harsh towards the
Asian students
oOpenly enforced stereotypes about hoe Asian boys are unsuited for PE class
oPhysically and verbally bullied them
- In Vancouver, Chinese males have often been discriminated against
oBegan over a century ago
oDenounced in local newspapers which only implied that the Chinese men could
not stand up for themselves (were not manly enough to do so)
oSucceeds in maintaining a hegemonic idea of masculinity where white males are
physically and culturally dominant
Demonstrated in secondary BC secondary schools
- Chinese Canadians make up a large portion of school populations in BC
oIntegration of these students is being impeded by discrimination by other children
oCanada’s multiculturalism policy isn’t working
- White people’s sense of privilege is prevailing over “commitment to social justice in
Constructing Chinese-Canadians masculinity/ies: institutional racism and the historical
stereotyping of Chinese men in Western Canada
-Started in mid-19th century
oNegative stereotyping
Small, effeminate, weak, sexually dangerous
All Asians, but especially Chinese
oWere representative of China’s weakness at the time
Image enforced through the media
Vancouverites feared “yellow peril”
Thought large amounts of Chinese people would take over
spreading disease and drugs everywhere
oWere banned, with “Negroes”, from swimming until 1945
for fear of infecting the pool
- Chinese racism was sometimes the result of self-fulfilling prophecy
oEx: cramped conditions of Chinatown, men were forced into only specific
Were often the victims of White vandalism and fines/closures (institutions
were seemed “unclean”)
Common job: launderers (enforced image of femininity)
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- 1884: Act to regulate the Chinese Population of BC
oCouldn’t vote, work in certain areas, hire white women, implemented a head tax
that steadily increased in amount until 1923 when Chinese people were no longer
allowed to immigrate to BC (repealed in 1947, got right to vote)
- Couldn’t afford to bring their families over so were known as “married bachelors and
unsettled sojourners’”
Chinese Masculinities in Early BC Schools
- School seen as a way to mold children into the ideal citizens
- Masculinity = building and sustaining the British Empire
oEx: physically strong, white military heroes
o Schools said the Chinese contradicted this masculine ideal
- Schools were given the job of assimilating the Chinese children
oAt the request of white parents the school board segregated older Chinese children
from the others as they posed a threat ‘to young girls’ and of spreading diseases
Were hardened because they had grown up in difficult neighborhoods
oThe younger Asian children remained integrated with everyone else
- Chinese parents fought segregation
oThey were guilty of buying into the hegemonic views of subordinate working
class masculinities
Wanted their children to get a good education so they could achieve social
Chinese-Canadian Sporting Pursuits
- Most Chinese communities traditionally place a higher importance on hard work and
intelligence over sport
oExceptions to this in Vancouver
oWealthy Chinese merchants were able to get their children involved in sport
A highly successful Chinese soccer team in 1920
Were extraordinary due to their speed and agility
Were considered equals with the whites because of their success
oA little too ideal
oMore likely the white people just saw soccer as a way to
assimilate the Chinese
oRacism towards the Chinese continued
Media = greatly to blame
Chinese-Canadian masculinities in the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries: Everyday Racism
-Mid 20th C:
oChinese people were allowed
To become occupationally mobile, financially secure, etc.
But people still had a messed up view of Chinese masculinity
- Today: Chinese people = most populous ethnic minority in Vancouver and tis
surrounding suburbs (22% + of the population)
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