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Chapter 1

KINE 2011 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Sphingolipid, Glycogen, Purine

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 2011
Gillian Wu

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Chapter 1
Kin 2011 will cover the chemical, cellular, tissue, and organ functions in the human body.
Basic Cell Function
Food + O2 Food + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energy CO2 + Waste
Outside of Cell Inside of the cell Outside of the cell
- Cells have a mechanism that can help them control the exchange of material in side the cell
and the cell’s surrounding environment. Cells are able to synthesize what they need, and are
able to reproduce (exceptions are nerve & muscle cells).
- When the human is a fetus, it is composed of undifferentiated stem cell. They are cells that
don’t know what they want to become (eg. Heart cells or brain cells). Later they differentiate to
the four primary types of tissues.
The Four Primary Types of Tissues
Muscle Tissues
-They contract to generate force,
and are made of 3 types:
1-Skeletal muscles (moves the
2-Cardiac Muscles (pump blood
out of heart)
3-Smooth Muscles (Surround &
control movement of molecules
through hollow tubes and
Epithelial Tissues
-consist of cells specialized for
exchanging materials btwn the
cell and its environment. They
consist of 2 types:
1- Epithelial sheets (e.g. skin, GI
2- Secretory glands. Secretory
glands arise from an invagination
of the surface of the epithelial
cell. They consist of 2 types:
a) Exocrine glands: release
substance through a duct to the
outside (the surface).
b) Endocrine glands: release
substance to the inside (the
blood), since their connecting
cells to the surface were lost.
Connective Tissues
-Connect and support
body parts.
-Distinguished by having
few cells spread within a
lot of extracellular
material (E.g. tendons,
bone, and blood).
Nervous Tissues
-Consist of cells
specialized for initiating
& transmitting electrical
-Found in brain, spinal
cord, and nerves.
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- A body system is a system where organs work together to function; the system does not work if
one organ is missing. The human body has 11 systems.
(Know which system is
which and what it is made up of, the function of these systems is explained in the next page)
Homeostasis: is the maintenance of the internal environment in a relatively stable range,
using feedback mechanisms. Each cell contributes to this internal stable environment,
whether it is pH, temperature, water conservation ... etc.
Negative feedback: is when the body proceeds to stop something because of too much of it.
Positive feedback: is when the body proceeds to increase the release of something because
it needs more of it.
Body cells live in a watery environment. Cells live in extracellular fluid (fluid outside the cell).
This outside fluid consist of interstitial fluid (mainly water), and plasma (blood). Moreover,
the cell also has fluid within itself, this is called intracellular fluid. This wonderful structure is
made so specific molecules can be transported in and out of the cell, thereby maintaining
the cells in a stable environment (Homeostasis)
-Homeostasis regulates the concentrations of nutrient molecules, O2 & CO2, water, salt, other
electrolytes, and waste products. It also regulates Volume, pressure, temperature, and pH.
-Disruption of homeostasis can lead to illness or death. Example of this is liposuction, since
liposuction involves the removal of body fluid as a side effect. Hypovolemic is the case where too much
fluid is removed which leads to death because of inadequate circulatory volume to sustain normal
homeostasis. In conclusion, homeostasis is essential for the survival of the cells, the body system
maintains homeostasis, and cells make up the body system. So, homeostasis is essential for the survival
of cells.
Body systems and their functions (11 Systems):
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