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Chapter 7

Chapter 7.doc

10 Pages
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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 3340
Professor
Nickolas Wattie

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Chapter 7: Growth and Maturation
Why Study Human Growth
For most individuals, physical growth is a predictable and ordered process
Understanding these predictable paths will help answer the question as to whether or not one is growing
normally
Departure from the predicted path of growth is usually the first sign of an abnormal condition
Abnormal conditions can include malnutrition, endocrine system malfunction, heart and other diseases, and
physical and psychological abuse to name just a few
These models of motor development were designed to help explain changes that occurs in our movement
behaviour across the human lifespan
Changes in movement behaviour can be, in part, explained by constraints
Measuring Growth in Length and Stature
From birth-2 years or until child can stand unassisted, total body length (recumbent length) is measured
while the child is supine
Special slide ruler is used to measure distance between vertex (highest point of skull) and the soles of the
feet
Measurement should be recorded to nearest 0.1 cm or 1/8 inch for both
When child can stand, standing height (stature), the distance between the vertex and the floor is preferred
Triangular headboard, which forms a right angle between the vertex and measurement scale, is used to
increase accuracy
For those who can’t stand, or have spinal curvature, or handicapped use knee height
Individual bends knee to 90 degrees, the blades of the sliding caliper are the placed under the heel and over
the anterior portion of the thigh
Pressure is applied to compress the soft tissue before the reading is taken
Different equation for men and women
Growth in Length and Stature
Zygote measures 0.14mm diameter
During 38-40 weeks fetus grows 5000 times longer
At birth, boys- 20 inches long; girls – 19.75 inches long
End of 1st year: boys – 30 inches long, girls- 29.25 inches long
During 1st year, body length can be expected to increase 50%
During second year, average gain in height of 4.75 inches
Then height increases more slowly, until onset of growth spurt
Some children experience a midgrowth spurt in height between 6.5-8.5 years of age; occurs more in girls
Hormonal changes during adolescence knows to cause boys and girls to grow taller rapidly
20% of height gain during adolescence; boys start at 11, girls 2 years earlier
Time of onset can vary by 3 years
Female growth spurt is slower rate; boys 4 inches/year, girls 3 inches/year
Height gain is due to lengthening of trunk; lengthening of legs happens 6-9 months earlier
At middle age, decrease in height caused by intervertebral disk degeneration and decreased thickness of
joint cartilage in the lower extremities
Distance curve plots accumulative growth obtained over time
Velocity curve plots increments of change per unit of time, making the curve useful for illustrating periods
of fast and slow growth
Visual comparison of charted data to the percentile rankings can quickly alert one to growth abnormalities
Growth retardation may indicate disease, malnutrition, child abuse, or delayed maturation, among other
conditions
Predicting Adult Stature
Reason include the medical management of erratic growth due to disease and use of data on stature in
regulating human growth hormone and anabolic steroid therapy
Formula: adult stature = 2 x (child’s height in inches at 2 years of age); most unreliable
Fels Longditudinal study researches found best predictors of adult stature are child’s current stature, child’s
current weight, midparent stature, and skeletal age
Skeletal age requirement was omitted
Validated for children 4-17 years
Measuring Body Weight
Electronic digital scale for those who can stand, and platform scale for infants
Infant can be carried on electronic digital scale by parents, and parents weight subtracted
Growth in Body Weight
At conception, ovum weights 0.005mg
By midpoint fetus is about 14 ounces (400g)
End of 34th week, 5.5lbs
Birth weight: boys – 7.5lbs, girls – 7 lbs
Length more influenced by genetic make up than weight
Birth weight reflects intrauterine life
During first 1-3 days of life, infant may lose 10% of body weight
During remaining time, infant gains 20 g (2/3 ounces) per day
Infant is double birth weight at 6 months
Rate of weight gain slows toward the middle and later part of the first year
End of 1st year: boys- 22.5 lbs, girls – 21 lbs
2nd year gain 5.5 lbs
Next 3 years, 4.5 lbs/year
Next 4-6 years 6.5 lbs/ year
During adolescence boys at 45 lbs, girls 35 lbs
Age of peak weight velocity generally occurs after peak height velocity
After maturity, adults can partly control whether they add, lose or maintain their weight
Women with children tend to weight more than their childless sisters
Some weight gain during pregnancy is permanent, and amount may increase with each successive child
Combining Body Weight and Height: Body Mass Index
Body mass index = body weight (kg)/ height(m) squared

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Description
Chapter 7 Growth and MaturationWhy Study Human GrowthFor most individuals physical growth is a predictable and ordered processUnderstanding these predictable paths will help answer the question as to whether or not one is growing normallyDeparture from the predicted path of growth is usually the first sign of an abnormal conditionAbnormal conditions can include malnutrition endocrine system malfunction heart and other diseases and physical and psychological abuse to name just a fewThese models of motor development were designed to help explain changes that occurs in our movement behaviour across the human lifespanChanges in movement behaviour can be in part explained by constraintsMeasuring Growth in Length and StatureFrom birth2 years or until child can stand unassisted total body length recumbent length is measured while the child is supineSpecial slide ruler is used to measure distance between vertex highest point of skull and the soles of the feetMeasurement should be recorded to nearest 01 cm or 18 inch for bothWhen child can stand standing height stature the distance between the vertex and the floor is preferredTriangular headboard which forms a right angle between the vertex and measurement scale is used to increase accuracyFor those who cant stand or have spinal curvature or handicapped use knee heightIndividual bends knee to 90 degrees the blades of the sliding caliper are the placed under the heel and over the anterior portion of the thighPressure is applied to compress the soft tissue before the reading is takenDifferent equation for men and women Growth in Length and StatureZygote measures 014mm diameterDuring 3840 weeks fetus grows 5000 times longer
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