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KINE 1000 Chapter : KINE 1000 Lecture : Kine 1000 Fall COMPLETE Reading Summaries 2014.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1000
Yuka Nakamura

Kine 1000 Complete FALL Reading Summaries Power Toward a new vision: Race, class, and gender as categories of analysis and connection Key Ideas: - Oppression is full of contradictions - To find oppressor o New vision of what oppression is o New categories of analysis – race, class, gender in structures of oppression - People act and feel different ways because of race, social class or gender categories - Change starts with self - Additive Analysis of Oppression o Dichotomous thinking o Dichotomous differences must be ranked o Rests on two twin pillars - Gender oppression o Institutional, symbolic, individual  Institutional Oppression occurs when established laws, customs, and practices systematically reflect and produce inequities based on one’s membership in targeted social identity groups  Interlocking nature of race, class and gender structuring the institutional dimension of oppression  Symbolic Dimension of Oppression is the stereotyping of genders, races, class etc. • Symbolic images, when applied differently to race, class and gender groups, work to maintain the systems of domination and subordination  Individual Dimension of Oppression is the stereotyping of gender, race and class in yourself, setting a path based on how you are oppressed  Everyone lives in a society that reproduces race, class and gender oppression - Differences in Power and Privilege o Differences in power constrain ability to connect o More privileged can erase presence of less privileged o Privileged become voyeurs o Race, class, gender - Coalitions around Common Causes o Built effective coalition between each other to form strong coalition - Building Empathy o Hard to do from both sides of privilege o Replace judgements of each other Critical Thinking and Thinking Critically Chapter 2: Barbie Girls versus Sea  Monsters - Thorne argued that previous theoretical frameworks were limited. o Analysis using four – five year olds o Socialization theories ignore children’s imagination o Analysis in “group life” – social relations, organization and meanings of social situations, practices in which children and adults create and recreate gender in their daily interactions o Varies from situation to situation (gender) o Labor, power structure, rules and values o Analysis of boys vs. girls in a soccer game  The interactional level: How do Children “do gender” and what are the contributions and limits of theories of performativity in understanding these interactions  The level of structural context: How does the gender regime, particularly the larger organizational level of formal sex segregation of AYSO, and the concrete, momentary situation of the opening ceremony provide a context that variously constrains and enables the children’s interactions  The level of Cultural Symbol: How does the children’s shared immersion in popular culture (and their differently gendered locations in this immersion) provide symbolic resources for the creation, in this situation, of apparently categorical differences between the boys and the girls? Barbie Girls versus Sea Monsters - Sea Monsters – Team of four and five year old boys, first soccer game - Barbie Girls – Team of four and five year old girls, first soccer game o Team float, red radio flyer wagon base, Sony boom box playing music, 3 foot tall Barbie doll. o Barbie song plays, girls sing along, Barbie rotating on pedestal, girls focused on Barbie, music and pleasure - Sea Monsters boys’ begin to chant NO BARBIE NO BARBIE, chanting against the barbies however share mutual pleasure - Girls show no evidence that they hear, see or are even aware of the presence of the boys - Boys and girls in vicinity of each other, boys chat NO BARBIE, charge towards girls in twos and threes The Performance of Gender - Girls seem to be performing for each other - Boys find themselves as audience to the girls, begin performing themselves, for each other and the girls - Parents do not read children’s performances of gender as social constructions of gender. o Interpret as unfolding of natural, internal differences between sexes  “The performance of gender is never a simple voluntary act… Theories of gender as play and performance need to be intimately and systematically connected with the power of gender (really, the power of male power) to constrain, control, violate, and configure. Too often mere lip service is given to the specific historical, social and political configurations that make certain conditions possible and others constrained.” - 1978 – Kessler and McKenna analyzed gender as everyday practical accomplishment of people’s interactions - 1987 – Zimmerman argued that in peoples everyday interactions, they were “doing gender” which constructs masculine dominance and feminine difference - Gender is viewed as enacted or created through everyday interactions, but crucially, as Walters suggested above, within “specific historical, social and political configurations” that constrain or enable certain interactions - Performances in gender can easily be interpreted as free agents’ acting out the inevitable surface manifestations of natural inner essence of sex difference Structure of Gender Adult Divisions of Labor and Power - Board of Directors for AYSO consisted of 21 men and 9 women, two top positions held by men. Clearly showed sexual division of labor and power - Team managers were women, coaches were men o Managers provided snacks, reminder of games and practices, organizing parties and end of year present - Authority of coach was a man, support role was a woman - Men applied for coach and woman applied for manager - Men have the knowledgeable authority with women serving in a support capacity - PAGE 25 FOR CHART The Children: Formal Sex Segregation - Signed up for co-ed league, AYSO decides to split boys and girls into separate leagues - Divisions of labor and power - Social structure sets ranges, limits, and possibilities for the children’s and parents interactions and performances on gender, does not determine them Culture of Gender - Team colours assigned based on gender Team Names - PAGE 27 FOR CHART - Three Types of Names o Sweet Names: These are cutesy team names that communicate small stature, cuteness, and or vulnerability. These kinds of names would most likely be widely read as encoded with Feminine meanings o Neutral or paradoxical names: Neutral names are team names that carry no obvious gendered meaning. Paradoxical names are girls team names that carry mixed messages o Power Names: These are team names that invoke images of unambiguous strength, aggression, ad raw power Barbie Narrative versus Warrior Narrative - Barbie femininity symbol, action toys masculinity symbol - Empowering Message for women: Barbie “We girls can do anything!” - Empathetic Femininity: Takes feminine appearances and demeanor to unsustainable extremes. Nothing about Barbie ever looks masculine, even when she is on the police force… Consistently, Barbie manages impressions so as to come across as a proper feminine creature even when she crosses boundaries usually dividing women from men. Barbie the firefighter is in no danger, then, of being seen as “one of the boys.” Kids know that; parents and teachers know that; Mattell designers know that too. - Research indicates that there is a widespread agreement as to which toys are appropriate for one sex and polluting, dangerous, or inappropriate for the other sex. - Most boys learn through experiences that they should play with certain toys, and the must hide their desire for opposite sex toys - Boys popular culture: Film, video, games, TV, comics, and provides boys with a lot of good guys vs. bad guys characters in stories Conclusion - Goal: to take one empirical observation from everyday life and demonstrate how multilevel analysis is might reveal various layers of meaning that give insight into the everyday social construction of gender. - Kids influenced easily, taking up popular culture from same gender as resources to be used in their own group dynamics – building individual and group identities, sharing the pleasures of play, clarifying boundaries between in-group and out-group members and constructing hierarchies in their worlds. Tutorial September 23 rd - Gender is partially constructed, and that these social constructions tell us how to understand ourselves as women and men - Behaviours would not change over time - Structure – Institutional structure (American youth soccer organization), interactions between people and the normalized ideas that we have and how we should interact - Messner structured his articles along these lines - Culture – Culture as a form of structure that guides how we behave, understand and interact - Images and messages we receive through popular culture - Often presented in binary terms (men and women) and these come to influence our understanding of the world but also our position in the world - Agency – Choice that people make, free will, shaped and often confined by the various structures and structural norms Social Class and Social Determinants of Health Nickel-and-Dimed: On (not) getting by in America - Story of diving into poverty o Experience poverty - Social class is the categories in which people compare themselves with others in terms of income, education, occupation etc. - Social determinants of health are economic and social conditions, primary determinants etc. of health - Habitus – Set of dispositions, orientations, preferences, habits built up from your perspective - Economic capital o Financial strength - Social Capital o The networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively. - Cultural Capital o Cultural capital refers to non-financial social assets that promote social mobility beyond economic means. Examples can include education, intellect, style of speech, dress, or physical appearance - Structure – Society - Agency – Individual - Blind to power and privilege relations of groups - Class is the strongest determinant of health - Income Inequality large social determinant of health - Social Position / Status = Class - Greater income inequality within a community leads to many consequences including worsened health Space, Place and health: Food Deserts Space, Place and Health: Food Deserts Assessing the relevance of neighbourhood characteristics to the household  food security of low­income Toronto Families - Two routes through which neighbourhood influence vulnerability to food insecurity o Local area food environment o Ne
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