1. What is the definition of skill?
- Skill consists in the ability to bring about some end result with maximum
certainty and minimum outlay of energy, or of time and energy
2. (a) Performing skills implies some desired environmental goal
(b) Give an example of this goal
- E.g. holding a handstand in gymnastics or completing a forward pass in
2. What are 4 important features of the definition of skill?
- Performing skills implies some desired environmental goal, which consist of
- To be skilled implies meeting this performance goal, this “end result,” with
- A major feature in many skills is the minimization, and this conservation, of
the energy required for performance
- For highly proficient performers to achieve their goals in minimum time
3. The minimum-energy notion is deemed to reduce/lower which types of
- Notion applies to organizing the action not only so the physiological energy
costs are lower but also so the psychological, or mental, energy required is
4. What is the major contributor to the efficiency of a skilled performance?
- Is practice, with learning and experience leading to the relatively effortless
performances so admired in highly skilled people
5. What usually is a by-product of speeding up performance?
- Results in sloppy movements that have less certainty in terms of achieving
the environmental goal
6. What 3 concepts are valuable when wanting to achieve some well-defined
- Maximizing the achievement certainty
- Minimizing the physical and mental energy costs of performance
- Minimizing the time used
7. What 3 elements are critical to almost any skill?
- Perceiving the relevant environmental features
- Deciding what to do and where and when to do it
- Producing organized muscular activity to generate movements
8. What do the postural components provide when performing a movement? - A "platform" to support the actions
9. What component of movement brings the body or limb to the action?
- Body transport components
11. What components are utilized when moving the fingers and wrists in a
complex video game?
- Manipulation components (produce the action)
12. Why is it difficult to study the skill components efficiently?
- Because several components of skill are studied by, 'widely different groups
of scientists’, generally with little overlap and communication among them
13. What are cognitive psychologists primarily interested in?
- Complex information-processing activities involved in seeing, hearing, and
14. How do cognitive psychologists differ from psychophysicist?
- Both study sensory factors in perception but psychophysicists examine the
relationship between objective physical stimuli and the subjective sensations
these stimuli create when perceived (vibration intensity vs. loudness)
15. What is the difference between an open skill and closed skill?
- Open skill is one for which the environment is variable and unpredictable
during the action
- Closed skill is one for which the environment is stable and predictable
16. Wrestling is an example of what kind of skill classification?
- Open skill
17. Why is chess a semi-predictable environment?
- Since the performer needs to respond to moment-to-moment variations in the
environment thus bringing in the processes associated with perception, pattern
recognition and decision-making so the action can be tailored to the
18. What is the difference between a discrete skill and a continuous skill?
- Discrete skill usually has an easily defined beginning and end, often with a
very brief duration of movement and are important in sport performance
- Continuous skill has no particular beginning or end, the behavior flowing on
for many minutes
19. Give an example of both a discrete skill and continuous skill.
- Discrete skill throwing or kicking a ball, firing a rifle, or catching a pass
- Continuous skill swimming, running, or pedaling a bicycle 21. What is a serial skill?
- Serial skill group of discrete skills strung together to make up anew, more
complicated skilled action
22. (a) What does the word „serial‟ imply in serial skill?
- Order of the elements is usually critical for successful performance
(b) Give an example of a serial skill
- Shifting car gears, performing a gymnastics routine and following the
sequential gates in a skiing race
23. How do serial skills differ from discrete skills?
- The movement durations are somewhat longer, yet each movement retains a
discrete beginning and end
24. Why is throwing a dart a discrete skill?
- Has a distinct beginning and end
25. With a motor skill, what is the primary determinant of success?
- Is the quality of the movement itself, where perception and subsequent
decisions about which movement to make are nearly absent
26. How do motor skills differ from cognitive skills?
- Cognitive skill mainly involves selecting what to do, whereas a motor skill
mainly involves how to do it
27. True/False: A quarterback makes some decisions with maximal motor
- False a quarterback makes some decision making with some motor control
1. (a) Define Reaction Time (RT).
- The time interval between the presentation of a signal and the initiation of
(b) Give an example of when RT can be used.
- Used in a sports situation to determine how quickly a sprinter responds to the
starter’s signal and begins to leave the blocks or the time required by a
quarterback to spot an open receiver and then begin the throwing action
2. When movements are in response to a single stimulus, this is what type of
reaction time situation?
- Simple reaction time (SRT): movements of the sprinter are in response to the
presentation of a single stimulus, the firing of the starter's gun
3. (a) What is the difference between a choice reaction time and a
discrimination reaction time? - Choice reaction time (CRT): requires a particular movement response to a
- Discrimination reaction stimulus (DRT): performers are required to respond
only to one of several signals presented
(b) Give an example for each.
- CRT: in