1. Why would an expert/skilled performer have difficulty teaching a beginner
- Since the expert fails to understand how the beginner approaches
performing the skill each time he or she tries it (expert has difficulty
behaving like a beginner)
2. Someone has suffered a stroke and has lost their ability to walk. How must a
physiotherapist approach skill acquisition?
- From the perspective of the beginner
3. What purpose would splitting a fairly large physical education class into
smaller more homogeneous groups serve in both teaching and acquiring
- To predict future performance achievements of the skill, allow for
increased practice time as well as increasing experience
4. (a) According to Paul Fitts and Michael Posner, what is the first stage of
- The cognitive stage
(b) What is performance during this stage largely marked by?
- A large number of errors and the errors tend to be large ones (performance
is highly variable showing a lack of consistency from one attempt to the
(c) True/False: Beginners are not aware of their errors, and they generally do
not know what they need to do to improve upon it.
- Beginners may be aware that they are doing something wrong, they
generally do not know what they need to do to improve
1. (a) According to Paul Fitts and Michael Posner, what is the second stage of
- The associative stage
(b) Why are errors less evident in this stage?
- Since he or she has acquired the basic fundamentals or mechanics of the
skill (need to be improved)
(c) Performance variability begins to decrease. (During refining process – person
focuses on performing the skill successfully and being more consistent from one
attempt to the next)
6. The final stage of learning is also known as autonomous stage of learning.
7. What is characteristic of a person in the final stage of learning?
- Do not consciously think about the specific movement characteristics of
what they are doing while performing the skill, because they can perform
it without conscious thought 8.True/False: Almost all learners experience abrupt shifts from one stage to the
next because it is rare to see gradual transitions from stage to stage
- False: learners do not make abrupt shifts from one stage to the next, there
is a gradual transition or change of the learner’s characteristics from stage
9. Of the 4 different types of performance curves, what is more typical of motor
skill learning than other and why?
- The negatively accelerated pattern since early in practice a learner usually
experiences a large amount of improvement relatively quickly but as
practice continues the amount of improvement decreases
10. What is the power law of practice?
- Mathematical law describing the negatively accelerating change in rate of
performance improvement during skill learning; large amounts of
improvement occur during early practice, but smaller improvement rates
characterize further practice
11. (a) What is the general relationship between performance and the amount of
experience one has?
- Performance increases as experience increases however the amount of
improvement occurs during the first few years and then starts to gradually
increase over time
(b) True/False: Performance will eventually plateau
- False: Performance will appear to slow over time
12. (a) Explain what “freezing the degrees of freedom” involves.
- Holding some joints rigid (“freezing” them) while performing the skill
(b) How can this be useful for a beginner?
- Allows them to gain initial control of the many degrees of freedom
associated with performing a complex motor skill 1. What is functional synergy?
- The individual arm and hand segments work together in a cooperative way
to enable optimal p