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Topic 7.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3020
Merv Mosher

Topic 7: 1. Why would an expert/skilled performer have difficulty teaching a beginner an activity? - Since the expert fails to understand how the beginner approaches performing the skill each time he or she tries it (expert has difficulty behaving like a beginner) 2. Someone has suffered a stroke and has lost their ability to walk. How must a physiotherapist approach skill acquisition? - From the perspective of the beginner 3. What purpose would splitting a fairly large physical education class into smaller more homogeneous groups serve in both teaching and acquiring skills? - To predict future performance achievements of the skill, allow for increased practice time as well as increasing experience 4. (a) According to Paul Fitts and Michael Posner, what is the first stage of learning called? - The cognitive stage (b) What is performance during this stage largely marked by? - A large number of errors and the errors tend to be large ones (performance is highly variable showing a lack of consistency from one attempt to the next) (c) True/False: Beginners are not aware of their errors, and they generally do not know what they need to do to improve upon it. - Beginners may be aware that they are doing something wrong, they generally do not know what they need to do to improve 1. (a) According to Paul Fitts and Michael Posner, what is the second stage of learning called? - The associative stage (b) Why are errors less evident in this stage? - Since he or she has acquired the basic fundamentals or mechanics of the skill (need to be improved) (c) Performance variability begins to decrease. (During refining process – person focuses on performing the skill successfully and being more consistent from one attempt to the next) 6. The final stage of learning is also known as autonomous stage of learning. 7. What is characteristic of a person in the final stage of learning? - Do not consciously think about the specific movement characteristics of what they are doing while performing the skill, because they can perform it without conscious thought 8.True/False: Almost all learners experience abrupt shifts from one stage to the next because it is rare to see gradual transitions from stage to stage - False: learners do not make abrupt shifts from one stage to the next, there is a gradual transition or change of the learner’s characteristics from stage to stage 9. Of the 4 different types of performance curves, what is more typical of motor skill learning than other and why? - The negatively accelerated pattern since early in practice a learner usually experiences a large amount of improvement relatively quickly but as practice continues the amount of improvement decreases 10. What is the power law of practice? - Mathematical law describing the negatively accelerating change in rate of performance improvement during skill learning; large amounts of improvement occur during early practice, but smaller improvement rates characterize further practice 11. (a) What is the general relationship between performance and the amount of experience one has? - Performance increases as experience increases however the amount of improvement occurs during the first few years and then starts to gradually increase over time (b) True/False: Performance will eventually plateau - False: Performance will appear to slow over time 12. (a) Explain what “freezing the degrees of freedom” involves. - Holding some joints rigid (“freezing” them) while performing the skill (b) How can this be useful for a beginner? - Allows them to gain initial control of the many degrees of freedom associated with performing a complex motor skill 1. What is functional synergy? - The individual arm and hand segments work together in a cooperative way to enable optimal p
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