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Chapter 16

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3340
Nickolas Wattie

Chapter 16Developmenal motor delaysCerebral palsy neurological disorder that affects brain input to musclesSpina bifida damage to spinal cord that results in partial or full paralysisDown syndrome genetic disorder that affects muscle tone and coordinationDefinitionsa child with a motor delay is following a normal course of motor development but at a level that is below expectations for the childs ageNo structural deficits but for some reason does not acquire motor milestones and skills at the same rate as peersMotor delays because of cognitive processing attention including intellectual abilities learning disabilities and autism no overt physical disabilitiesSome may catch up such as prematures and others will always be behind and gap gets biggerExample of one that stays behind is intellectual disability childStructural deficitStructural deficit structural difference that does not allow the child to develop the same pattern of movement as peers who do not have disabilitiesThey will never catch upCan be neurological such as cerebral palsy or physicalmissing limbArthrogryposis in fetal development joints fuse and muscle atrophy kids cant bend elbows or kneesWaddle when walking unique ways to throw and catchTheories of delayed motor developmentNeuromaturation cognitive processing and dynamical systemsNeuromaturation Theory and motor delaysProposed by Gesell mcgraw bobathDevelopment is primarily biologically drivenAs brain develops and matures normal motor development occurs reflexes appear and are then integrated voluntary movement such as sitting crawling and reachinggrasping develops and finally advanced motor skills such as walking jumping throwing and catchingEnvironment plays little roleMotor delays are directly related to damage to CNSIn cerebral palsy damage to brain part of CNSprevents accurate transmission signals to musclesResult is muscles that are firing all the time or sporadically affecting the childs ability affecting childs ability to control movementSome kids with severe damage to brain may display primitive reflexes grasp moro asymmetric tonic neck ATNRBobath approach therapists manipulate childs body to counteract inappropriate motor responsesEx child who displays ATNR their head is turned away from side where the arm is straight and toward the arm that is bentPurpose is that it stimulates other parts of the brain that are damagedDoman and delacto motor delays arise due to missing normal development sequences such as crawling and creepingthis theory is rejected by mostCognitive processing theory and motor delaysSome children display motor delays because they have problems with receiving and processing informationKids require the cognitive processes involved in planning forming strategies attention and memory in order to carry out normal motor functioningInformation processing model info from environment has to be identified and processed and then an appropriate movement has to be selected and programmed so the child can make an appropriate movement responseOnce child has moved he must analyze the success or failure of the movement via feedback and then make necessary adjustments for subsequent movementsPeople with problems are slow to reactTherapy to help children learn how to process info more quickly attend to relevant cues in the environment and use control process such as rehearsal to move info from shortterm to long term memoryEx Child with learning disability has not mastered stepping with opposite foot when performing overhand throw teacher places red footprint for a starting point and another for stepping with opposite foot to cue the child to isolate componentTeacher places red tape on the childs foot to help him attend to relevant cues easily distracted box of balls so knows when hes done child has to say step opposite outloud every timeDynamical Systems theory and motor delays
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