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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Readings- Chapter 1 How Psychology Developed Psyche means the soul, logos means the study of a subject; introduced in the 16 century th 18 century psychology was seen as the “study of the mind” Psychology: is the science that studies behaviour & the physiological & cognitive processes that underlie it, & it’s the profession that applies the knowledge of this science to practical problems In 1879 Wundt (founder of psychology) established the first formal lab for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig (Germany) In 1881 Wundt established the first journal devoted to research on psychology A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt & Hall By 1870’s many philosophers & physiologists were exploring questions about the mind Wundt believed psychology’s main focus was consciousness: the awareness of experience Many of his students branched out across Germany & North America to study psychology Between 1883-1893, around 24 new psychological research labs had been made in the US & Canada G. Stanley Hall contributed rapid growth in America He established America’s first research lab at Johns Hopkins University in 1883 He was the first president of APA (American Psychological Association) in 1892 The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism Structuralism emerged from Edward Titchener structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements & investigate how these elements are related (sensations, feelings, images) Structuralism depends on introspection: the careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experien ceobjects were trained to be more aware, & then were exposed to optical illusions & auditory tones, followed by being asked what they experienced Limitations of introspection: if you depend on an individual’s reflection to document a phenomenon, there’s no independent objective evaluation of that claim www.notesolution.com Functionalism emerged from William Jam es functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure James strongly believes in natural selection: consciousness is a more important characteristic of our species; hence the importance on the functions James argues that consciousness is a flow of thoughts (stream of consciousness), not points in that flow Structuralists work more in labs, while functionalists examine the everyday real world Functionalists focus more on mental testing, patterns of development in children, the effectiveness of education, & behavioural differences between sexes Margaret Washburn was the first woman in America to get her Ph D in psychology Leta Hollingworth worked on children’s intelligence, & explaining why women are inferior to men Mary Calkins was the first female president of APA Functionalism fostered the development of two modern psychology topics: behaviouralism & applied psychology Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviourism Make Its Debut Behaviourism (founded by John B. Watson in early 1990s): is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour He believed psychologists should stop studying consciousness, & focus on behaviours Behaviour: refers to any observational response or activity by an organism Watson believed in nurture over nature Stimulus: any detectable input from the environment (light, advertisements, words etc) ie. Pavlov showed that dogs can be trained to salivate in response to a stimulus such as a tone (bell) Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture Sigmund Freud treated people with fears, obsessions & anxieties with a procedure called psychoanalysis He gathered material through his own anxieties, conflicts & desires Unconscious: contains thoughts, memories & desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that exert great influence on behaviour www.notesolution.com Believes that slips of the tongue reveal a person’s true feelings Dreams express important feelings we’re unaware of Psychoanalytic theory: explains personality, motivation & mental disorders by focusing on the unconscious determinants of behaviour Behaviour is influenced on a person’s sexual urges By 1920 psychoanalytic theory was known worldwide Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviourism Flourishes Skinner didn’t think that mental events really explained behaviour Believed that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, & tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes One can control behaviour by manipulating outcomes of their response People are controlled by their environment, not themselves The Humanists Revolt Psychoanalytic theory was attacked for its belief that behaviour is determined by sexual urges Behaviourism was attacked for its preoccupation with the study of simple animal behaviour Both theories attacked because it states people are not the masters of their own destiny Both theories failed to recognize human behaviour Humanism: a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities if humans, especially their freedom & potential for personal growth Humanists are optimistic; animals & human behave are different Carl Rogers says human behaviour is determined by each individual’s sense of “self” or “self- concept” Him & Maslow believe tha
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