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Chapter 1

PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Leta Stetter Hollingworth, Margaret Floy Washburn, American Psychological Association

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

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Readings- Chapter 1
How Psychology Developed
Psyche means the soul, logos means the study of a subject; introduced in the 16th century
18th century psychology was seen as thestudy of the mind
Psychology: is the science that studies behaviour & the physiological & cognitive processes
that underlie it, & its the profession that applies the knowledge of this science to practical
In 1879 Wundt (founder of psychology) established the first formal lab for research in
psychology at the University of Leipzig (Germany)
In 1881 Wundt established the first journal devoted to research on psychology
A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt & Hall
By 1870s many philosophers & physiologists were exploring questions about the mind
Wundt believed psychology’s main focus was consciousness: the awareness of experience
Many of his students branched out across Germany & North America to study psychology
Between 1883-1893, around 24 new psychological research labs had been made in the US &
G. Stanley Hall contributed rapid growth in America
He established Americas first research lab at Johns Hopkins University in 1883
He was the first president of APA (American Psychological Association) in 1892
The Battle of theSchools Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism
Structuralism emerged from Edward Titchener structuralism was based on the notion that
the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements & investigate how
these elements are related (sensations, feelings, images)
Structuralism depends on introspection: the careful, systematic self-observation of ones own
conscious experience objects were trained to be more aware, & then were exposed to optical
illusions & auditory tones, followed by being asked what they experienced
Limitations of introspection: if you depend on an individuals reflection to document a
phenomenon, theres no independent objective evaluation of that claim

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Functionalism emerged from William James functionalism was based on the belief that
psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its
James strongly believes in natural selection: consciousness is a more important characteristic
of our species; hence the importance on the functions
James argues that consciousness is a flow of thoughts (stream of consciousness), not points in
that flow
Structuralists work more in labs, while functionalists examine the everyday real world
Functionalists focus more on mental testing, patterns of development in children, the
effectiveness of education, & behavioural differences between sexes
Margaret Washburn was the first woman in America to get her Ph D in psychology
Leta Hollingworth worked on childrens intelligence, & explaining why women are inferior to
Mary Calkins was the first female president of APA
Functionalism fostered the development of two modern psychology topics: behaviouralism &
applied psychology
Watson Alters Psychologys Course as Behaviourism Make Its Debut
Behaviourism (founded by John B. Watson in early 1990s): is a theoretical orientation based
on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour
He believed psychologists should stop studying consciousness, & focus on behaviours
Behaviour: refers to any observational response or activity by an organism
Watson believed in nurture over nature
Stimulus: any detectable input from the environment (light, advertisements, words etc) ie.
Pavlov showed that dogs can be trained to salivate in response to a stimulus such as a tone
Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture
Sigmund Freud treated people with fears, obsessions & anxieties with a procedure called
He gathered material through his own anxieties, conflicts & desires
Unconscious: contains thoughts, memories & desires that are well below the surface of
conscious awareness but that exert great influence on behaviour
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