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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Chapter 5 • Narcolepsy, a serious sleep disorder in which those who suffer from it often fall asleep uncontrollably during their everyday routine. • Sleep deprivation has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes, including increasing the chances of experiencing a fatal car crash, and things such as immune regulation impairment and metabolic control Biological Rhythms The nature of consciousness • Consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli. As you read this sentence, it becomes part of your consciousness • Your consciousness is continuously changing, a fact that led William James (1902) to describe this continuous flow as the stream of consciousness. Some of the thoughts entering your stream of consciousness are the result of intention: We seem to be easily able to shift our attention to things of importance or interest in our environment • almost every human behavior comes from a mixture of conscious and unconscious processing • While attention and consciousness are clearly closely related, they are not identical, you can have either one without the other. While some of what enters our consciousness seems intentional and designed to further specific goals or motivations—for example, your tendency to listen carefully to what your professor has to say in class, especially as the exam draws closer— other thoughts seem to just meander into our minds • Mind wandering refers to people's experience of task-unrelated thoughts, thoughts that are not related to what they are intentionally trying to do at a given moment. • controlled processes—judgments or thoughts that we exert some control over, that we intend to occur—automatic processing and its effects happen without our intentional control or effort. • -Conscious thought is thought with attention; unconscious thought is thought without attention (or with attention directed elsewhere)‖ • -Conscious thought is constrained by capacity limitations such that you often consider only a small subset of all the relevant information when making a decision or evaluation. The advantage of unconscious thought is that it does not have the same capacity constraint. • The electroencephalograph (EEG) is a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp. Ultimately, the EEG summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracings called brain waves. These brain-wave tracings vary in amplitude (height) and frequency (cycles per second, abbreviated cps). Human brain-wave activity is usually divided into four principal bands, based on the frequency of the brain waves. These bands, named after letters in the Greek alphabet, are: TABLE 5.1 EEG Patterns Associated with States of Consciousness EEG Pattern Frequency (cps) Typical States of Consciousness Beta (β) 13–24 Normal waking thought, alert problem solving Alpha (α) 8–12 Deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation Theta (θ) 4–7 Light sleep Delta (Δ) Less than 4 Deep sleep  Different patterns of EEG activity are associated with different states of consciousness. Consciousness involves varied levels of awareness.  Mental processes continue during sleep, as some stimuli can penetrate awareness.  Research suggests that decisions made when people do not have the chance to make conscious deliberations may sometimes be more accurate.  The evolutionary significance of consciousness is a matter of debate.  Changes in consciousness are correlated with changes in brain activity as measured by EEGs. Relations to sleep  -Humans, many other animals, and even plants display biological rhythms that are tied to these planetary rhythms. Biological rhythms are periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning. The existence of these rhythms means that organisms have internal ―biological clocks‖ that somehow monitor the passage of time.  Circadian rhythms are the 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species. In humans, circadian rhythms are particularly influential in the regulation of sleep. However, daily cycles also produce rhythmic variations in blood pressure, urine production, hormonal secretions, and other physical functions  circadian rhythms can leave individuals physiologically primed to fall asleep most easily at a particular time of day  circadian rhythms generally persist even when external time cues are eliminated  daily exposure to light readjusts people's biological clocks. When exposed to light, some receptors in the retina send direct inputs to a small structure in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN sends signals to the nearby pineal gland, whose secretion of the hormone melatonin plays a key role in adjusting biological clocks.  If you get less than the amount of sleep that you need, you accumulate ―sleep debt‖  a rough rule of thumb for jet lag is that the readjustment process takes about a day for each time zone crossed when you fly eastward, and about two- thirds of a day per time zone when you fly westward melatonin can reduce the effects of jet lag by helping travellers resynchronize their biological clocks, but the research results are inconsistent.  If you are a shift worker, then you know it can have important effects on you. Studies show that workers get less total sleep when they go on rotating shifts. Researchers have also tried carefully timed exposure to bright light as a treatment to realign the circadian rhythms of rotating shift workers in industrial settings. The architecture of sleep  electromyograph (EMG), which records muscular activity and tension, and an electrooculograph (EOG), which records eye movements  Non-REM sleep consists of stages 1–4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity.  STAGE 1: o onset of sleep is gradual, no obvious transition. o Length of time it takes people to fall asleep varies considerably which depends on fators including, how long it has been since person has slept, circardian cycle, noise or light, persons age, desire to fall asleep, boredom, caffeine or drug intake and stress level. o stage 1 is a brief transitional stage of light sleep, last a few (1-7) minutes. Breathing and heart rate slow, body temp declines. o Give way to lower frequency EEG activity in which Theta waves are prominient. o Hypnotic jerks are brief muscle contractions that occur when people fall asleep and generally occur during stage 1 drowsiness.  STAGES 2,3,4: o Respiration rate, heart rate, muscle tension, and body temperature continue to decline. During stage 2, which typically lasts about 10–25 minutes, brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves, called sleep spindles o Slow-wave sleep (SWS) consists of sleep stages 3 and 4, during which high-amplitude, low-frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings. o Typically, individuals reach slow-wave sleep in about half an hour and stay there for roughly 30 minutes. Then the cycle reverses itself and the sleeper gradually moves back upward through the lighter stages.  REM: o When sleepers reach what should be stage 1 once again, they usually go into the fifth stage of sleep, which is most widely known as REM sleep. As we have seen, REM is an abbreviation for the rapid eye movements prominent during this stage of sleep o The REM stage tends to be a ―deep‖ stage of sleep in the conventional sense that people are relatively hard to awaken from it o marked by irregular breathing and pulse rate. Muscle tone is extremely relaxed o Although REM is a relatively deep stage of sleep, EEG activity is dominated by high-frequency beta waves that resemble those observed when people are alert and awake o during the course of sleep, REM periods gradually get longer and non- REM periods get shorter and shallower. o The architecture of sleep varies somewhat from one person to the next. o most dream reports come from the REM stage, REM dreams may be more frequent, vivid, and memorable. st  Sleep cycle is repeated about 4 times, the 1 REM period is relatively short, lasting only a few minutes. Subsequent REM periods get progressively longer, peaking at around 40-60 minutes in length. Additionally, NREM intervals stages tend to get shorter and descents into NREM stages usually become shallower.  Age alters sleep cycle. Babies immediately after birth have only 2 sleep types: REM and non-REM sleep. They spend more time in REM than adults do. REM portion of sleep continues to decrease gradually with age until it levels off at about 20%. Avg amount of total sleep time also declines with advancing age.  Cultural disparities in sleep are limited to more peripheral matters such as sleeping arrangements and napping customs. (siesta, avoiding work during the hottest part of the day)  Arousal depends on activity in the Ascending reticular activating system, but a constellation of brain structure and neurotransmitters contribute of regulation of the sleep and waking cycle. Sleep deprivation  Partial deprivation is common and can impair alertness; it appears to contribute to many accidents.  Selective deprivation of REM and slow wave sleep leads to increased attempts to shift into these stages of sleep an increased time spent in these stages after sleep deprivation ends. Also known as ‗rebound effect’.  Recent studies suggest that REM and slow-wave sleep help firm up learning that takes place during the day—a process called ―memory consolidation‖.  REM may foster neurogenesis (formation of new neurons)  Short sleep duration is associated with a variety of health problems, but both short and long sleepers exhibit elevated mortality rates. Insomnia  Insomnia occurs in three patterns: difficulty falling asleep, difficulty remaining asleep, and persistent early morning awakenings.  associated with daytime fatigue, impaired functioning, and elevated risk for accidents, reduced productivity, absenteeism at work, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, hypertension, and increased health problems  ―pseudo-insomnia’ OR sleep state misperception, which means that they just think they are getting an inadequate amount of sleep  Insomnia is a fairly common sleep disorder and it has many diverse causes including the possibility that insomniacs have a higher arousal level, excessive anxiety, emotional problems like depression and stress, physical helth problems like back pain, ulcers, asthma.  Sedative drugs are a poor long-term solution to insomnia because of the risk of overdose, escalating dependency, and carryover drowsiness. Other sleep problems  Narcolepsy is a disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods.  Sleep apnea involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep. Some victims are awakened from their sleep hundreds of times a night. Apnea occurs when a person literally stops breathing for a minimum of ten seconds  Nightmares are anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep (see Figure 5.10). Typically, a person who awakens from a nightmare recalls a vivid dream and may have difficulty getting back to sleep. 10 percent of adults have occasional nightmares; these frightening episodes are mainly a problem among children. Most youngsters have occasional nightmares, but persistent nightmares may reflect an emotional disturbance.  Night terrors (also called ―sleep terrors‖) are abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep, accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic. Victims typically let out a piercing cry, bolt upright, and then stare into space. They do not usually recall a coherent dream, although they may remember a simple, frightening image. The panic normally fades quickly, and a return to sleep is fairly easy. Night terrors occur in adults, but they are especially common in children aged three to eight.  Somnambulism , or sleepwalking, occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep. Sleepwalking tends to occur during the first two hours of sleep, when individuals are in slow-wave sleep (see Figure 5.10). Episodes may last from 15 seconds to 30 minutes  REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is marked by potentially troublesome dream enactments during REM periods. People who exhibit this syndrome may talk, yell, gesture, flail about, or leap out of bed during their REM dreams. The nature of dreams  Dreams are mental experiences during REM sleep that have a story-like quality, include vivid visual imagery, are often bizarre, and are regarded as perceptually real by the dreamer. They tend to unfold in familiar settings with a cast of characters dominated by family, friends, and colleagues. We are more tolerant of logical discrepancies and implausible scenarios in our dreams than our waking thought  The one nearly universal element of dreams is a coherent sense of self— we almost always experience dreams from a first-person perspective.  incorporation of external stimuli into dreams shows that people's dream world is not entirely separate from their real world.  Sometimes people may realize they are dreaming while still in the dream state. These are often referred to as ―lucid dreams‖. In some of these dreams, the dreamer may be able to exert some control over the dream.  Cultural variations are seen in dream recall, dream content, dream interpretation, and the importance attributed to dreams. The World of Dreams Theories of dreaming  Sigmund Freud asserted that the chief purpose of dreams is wish fulfillment. For example, someone who is sexually frustrated might have highly erotic dreams  Cartwright articulated a Cognitive, problem-solving view; there is considerable continuity between waking and sleeping thought. Proponents of this view believe that dreams allow people to engage in creative thinking about problems because dreams are not restrained by logic or realism  Hobson and McCarley assert The activation–synthesis model proposes that dreams are side effects of the neural activation that produces waking- like brain waves during REM sleep. According to this model, neurons firing periodically in lower brain centres send random signals to the cortex Hypnotic induction and phenomena  Hypnosis is a procedure that produces a heightened state of suggestibility. People vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis.  Hypnotic susceptibility is a stable trait made up of three components: o Absorption involves the capacity to reduce or block peripheral awareness and narrow the focus of one's attention. o Dissociation involves the ability to separate aspects of perception, memory, or identity, from the mainstream of conscious awareness. o Suggestibility involves the tendency to accept directions and information relatively uncritically.  Hypnosis can produce a variety of effects, including: o anesthesia (Under the influence of hypnosis, some participants can withstand treatments that would normally cause considerable pain) , o sensory distortions and hallucinations, o disinhibition (sometimes reduce inhibitions that would normally prevent subjects from acting in ways that they would see as socially undesirable) o posthypnotic amnesia (Such subjects usually claim to remember nothing, as ordered. However, when pressed, many of these subjects acknowledge that they have not really forgotten the information). Theories of hypnosis  According to Theodore Barber, hypnosis produces a normal state of consciousness in which people act out the role of hypnotized subject.  The role-playing view is supported by evidence that hypnotic feats can be duplicated by nonhypnotized subjects and that hypnotic subjects are often acting out a role.  According to Ernest Hilgard, hypnosis produces an altered state of awareness characterized by dissociation. The altered state view is supported by evidence that divided consciousness is a common state that has continuity with everyday experience. Ex. people will often drive a car a great distance, responding to traffic signals and other cars, with no recollection of having consciously done so. Hypnosis Meditation Physiological correlates and long-term benefits  Meditation refers to a family of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control.  Two types of mediation are: o focused attention (attention is concentrated on a specific object, image, sound, or bodily sensation (such as breathing) meant to reduce clutter of the mind) and o open monitoring (attention is directed to the contents of one's moment-to-moment experience in a nonjudgmental and nonreactive way)  Studies suggest that effective meditation leads to a beneficial physiological state that may be accompanied by changes in brain activity. alpha waves and theta waves become more prominent in EEG recordings, Many studies also find that subjects‘ heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide elimination decline. Suppression of body arousal.  Evidence suggests that meditation may reduce stress hormones, enhance self-esteem and well-being, and reduce vulnerability to a variety of diseases. Recent work highlights the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy rooted in mindfulness meditation. Some critics suggest that these benefits may not be unique to meditation and are a product of relaxation. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Factors influencing drug effects  The drugs that people use recreationally are psychoactive. Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioural functioning. Not all psychoactive drugs produce effects that lead to recreational use. Generally, people prefer drugs that elevate their mood or produce other pleasurable alterations in consciousness.  Drug effects depend on users‘ age, mood, personality,weight, expectations, and previous experience with drugs. Drug effects also depend on the potency of the drug, the method of administration, and the user‘s tolerance. Risks associated with drug abuse  Physical dependence exists when drug use must be continued to avoid withdrawal illness.  Psychological dependence exists when drug use must be continued to satisfy craving for the drug.  Many drugs, especially CNS depressants, can produce a lethal overdose. Drugs cause direct tissue damage, snorting cocaine can damage nasal membranes.  The negative effects of drugs on physical health are often due to indirect behavioural effects, attitudes and intentions. Ex. Not eating or sleeping properly. Principal abused drugs  Narcotics are drugs derived from opium, such as heroin.  Sedatives are sleep-inducing drugs and tend to decrease CNS acitivation and behavioural activity , such as barbiturates.  Stimulants are drugs that increase CNS activation, such as cocaine and amphetamines.  Hallucinogens, such as LSD and mescaline, produce sensory distortions and diverse mental and emotional effects.  Cannabis is the hemp plant from which marijuana, hashish, and THC are derived.  Alcohol includes a variety of beverages that contain ethyl alcohol.  MDMA (ecstasy) is a compound drug related to amphetamines and hallucinogens.  Mechanisms of drug action  Psychoactive drugs exert their effects by selectively altering neurotransmitter activity. o Increased activation in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway may be responsible for the reinforcing effects of many drugs. CHAPTER 6  learning is any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience.  Phobias are irrational fears of specific objects or situations and are often the result of another learning process termed classical conditioning. Classical conditioning often plays a key role in shaping emotional responses such as fears.  The principles that explain learned responses in animals explain much of human learning, too Conditioning involves learning connections between events that occur in an organism's environment  Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke are sponse that was originally evoked by another stimulus. The process was first described around 1900 by Ivan Pavlov. His work showed how stimuli in the external world controlled our actions and behaviour (Pickren & Rutherford, 2010). He de-emphasized the mind, and mentalistic accounts of behaviour, and showed how learning was under the influence of experience and that ―associations could be built up in consciousness‖  unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.  unconditioned response (UCR) is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.  conditioned stimulus (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.  conditioned response (CR) is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.  trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli.  Evaluative conditioning refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli. In other words, evaluative conditioning involves the acquisition of likes and dislikes, or preferences, through classical conditioning. advertising campaigns routinely try to take advantage of evaluative conditioning  Classically conditioned responses are said to be elicited. Many kinds of everyday responses are regulated through classical conditioning, including phobias, mild fears, and pleasant emotional responses. Even subtle physiological responses such as immune system functioning respond to classical conditioning. Sexual arousal can be influenced by Pavlovian conditioning, and this process may have adaptive significance.  Compensatory CRs: In classical conditioning, a conditional response that opposes, rather than being the same as, the unconditional response. It functions to reduce the strength of the unconditional response, as in drug tolerance. They partially compensate for some drug effects and help to maintain homeostasis by canceling out anticipated effects of abused drugs. However if drugs taken in new ways/settings, the usual compensatory CRs may not occur and drugs may have a stronger impact.  Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning something. Pavlov theorized that the acquisition of a conditioned response depends on stimulus contiguity. Stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in time and space. Evidence suggests that stimuli that are novel, unusual, or especially intense have more potential to become CSs than routine stimuli, probably because they are more likely to stand out among other stimuli  extinction , the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency. What leads to extinction in classical conditioning? The consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone, without the unconditioned stimulus. Some conditioned responses extinguish quickly, while others are difficult to weaken.  Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus.  renewal effect —if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place. extinction somehow suppresses a conditioned response rather than erasing a learned association. extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning  Stimulus generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. The more similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the generalization.  Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. The less similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the likelihood (and ease) of discrimination.  higher-order conditioning , in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus. In higher-order conditioning, new conditioned responses are built on the foundation of already-established conditioned responses.  operant conditioning is a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences. governed voluntary responses. Another name for operant conditioning is instrumental learning . this kind of responding is often instrumental in obtaining some desired outcome.  law of effect , if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened. successful responses are gradually ―stamped in‖ by their favourable effects.  Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favourable consequences. Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response. In other words, a response is strengthened because it leads to rewarding consequences  operant chamber that has come to be better known as a ―Skinner box.‖ An operant chamber , or Skinner box , is a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled. operant responses tend to be voluntary, they are said to be emitted rather than elicited. To emit means to send forth.  Reinforcement contingencies are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers.. Ex. Food serves as a reinforcer for mice.  The cumulative recorder creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time. A rapid response rate produces a steep slope, whereas a slow response rate produces a shallow slope. Because the response record is cumulative, the line never goes down. It can only go up as more responses are made or flatten out if the response rate slows to zero.  shaping , which consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response. The mechanism of shaping is the key to training animals to perform impressive tricks.  Extinction refers to the gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency because the response is no longer followed by a reinforcer. Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been terminated. The greater the resistance to extinction, the longer the responding will continue. People often want to strengthen a response in such a way that it will be relatively resistant to extinction. For instance, most parents want to see their child's studying response survive even if the child hits a rocky stretch when studying doesn't lead to reinforcement (good grades).  renewal effect—if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place.  Discriminative stimuli are cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response. For example, birds learn that hunting for worms is likely to be reinforced after a rain. Reactions to a discriminative stimulus are governed by the processes of stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination, just like reactions to a CS in classical conditioning. TABLE 6.1 Comparison of Basic Processes in Classical and Operant Conditioning Process and Description in Description in Operant Conditioning Definition Classical Conditioning Acquisition: CS and UCS Responding gradually increases because of The initial are paired, reinforcement, possibly through shaping. stage of gradually learning resulting in CR. Extinction: CS is presented Responding gradually slows and stops after The gradual alone until it no reinforcement is terminated. weakening and longer elicits disappearance CR. of a conditioned response tendency Stimulus CR is elicited by Responding increases in the presence of generalization: new stimulus
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