Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (Textbook notes) pages 439 – 479
• Motivation: study of the processes involved in goal-directed behaviour this behaviour is often
associated with specific emotions (e.g. receiving results from a test; different emotions felt
depending on the grade).
• Motivation + emotion often linked!
• Motives: needs, wants, interests, and desires propelling people in certain directions.
• Drive theories apply the concept of homeostasis: state of physiological equilibrium or stability.
• Drives: an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should
• Drive reduction example: experiencing hunger (drive) during a long lecture… this internal drive
of hunger motivates you to obtain food to satisfy your hungry, thus reducing the tension and
restores physiological equilibrium/stability.
• *** Drive theories CANNOT explain ALL motivation homeostasis appears irrelevant to some
human motives (e.g. stopping for ice-cream after seeing an advertisement advertising the ice-
• Incentive theories propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states.
• Incentives: external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour.
• Drive and incentive models of motivation are often contrasted as push-versus-pull theories.
Drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions (source
of motivation lies INSIDE the organism) while, Incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli
pull people in certain directions (source of motivation lies OUTSIDE the organism; environment).
• Expectancy-value models: takes into account of the reality that some goals/desires cannot always
be obtained; one’s motivation to pursue a particular course of action depends on 2 factors: (1)
expectancy about one’s chances of achieving the incentive and (2) the value of the desired
• Example of expectancy-value model:
Motivation of pursuing a promotion at work; is it likely that you can get that promotion
How appealing is this promotion to you (value)?
I. Human motives and those of other species are products of evolution; natural selection favours
behaviours that maximize reproductive success – passing on genes to the next generation.
II. Ex. Dominance in species a crucial motive providing a reproductive or survival advantage.
Dominance thought to be a greater need in men that women b/c it can facilitate males’
reproductive success in variety of ways: (1) females may prefer mating with dominant males, (2) dominant males may poach females from subordinate males, (3) dominant males may intimidate
male rivals in competition for sexual access… etc. * good example.
Range and Diversity of Human Motives:
• Motivational theorists agree that humans display an enormous diversity of motives.
• Distinguish between biological motives (originate in bodily needs, such as hunger) and social
motives (originate in social experiences, such as the need for achievement).
• Examples of Biological Motives in Humans:
o Hunger & thirst
o Appropriate body temperature
o Excretory (eliminating bodily wastes)
o Sleep & rest
• Examples of Social Motives in Humans:
o Achievement (excel)
o Affiliation (forming social bonds)
o Autonomy (independence)
o Dominance (influence or control over others)
o Exhibition (make an impression on others)
o Play (fun, amusement)
Motivation of Hunger and Eating:
• Biological factors in the regulation of hunger:
o Growling of the stomach indicating someone is hungry; 1912 study conducted by Walter
Cannon and A. L. Washburn: association between stomach contractions and the
experience of hunger.
o Cannon: stomach contractions cause hunger theory eventually discredited. They do not
cause hunger but they accompany hunger. Proven through stomach removal studies:
patients still experienced hunger without a stomach.
• Brain Regulation:
o Hunger experience controlled in the hypothalamus (regulates a variety of biological needs
related to survival).
Lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
(VMH) are areas in the hypothalamus that serve as elements in the neural circuitry
that regulates hunger known before as the on-and-off switches that control
hunger… not the case today.
Today, scientists believe two other areas of the hypothalamus – arcuate nucleus
and the paraventricular nucleus – play a larger role in the modulation of hunger.
More of a focus on neural circuits that pass through areas of the hypothalamus
rather than on anatomical centers in the brain.
• Glucose and Digestive Regulation:
o Glucose: simple sugar that is an important source of energy most food taken into the
body is converted into glucose. o Actions that increase glucose level can make people feel satiated/satisfied.
o Actions that decrease blood glucose level can increase hunger.
o Glucostatic Theory of Hunger: fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain
where they influence the experience of hunger. The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus
is sensitive to glucose fluctuations that contribute to the modulation of eating.
Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger:
• Social and environmental factors govern eating to a considerable extent. Three key
environmental factors are: (1) availability of food, (2) learned preferences and habits, and (3)
1. Food Availability and Related Cues:
o Palatability: the better the food tastes, the more of it people consume (also experienced in
rats and other animals)
o Quantity available: the amount of food eaten is determined by the amount of food
available; people tend to eat what is in front of them.
o Variety: humans + animals increase their consumption when a greater variety of foods is
available (ex. Overeating at Buffets). As you eat a specific food, its incentive value declines
(phenomenon called sensory-specific satiety). If only a few foods available, the appeal of
them can decline more quickly then if there is more foods available of different variety.
o Presence of other: 44% of people eat more when they eat with other people; food is social!
o Hunger can be triggered by exposure to pictures, written descriptions, and video depictions
of attractive foods (incentive qualities of food clearly govern hunger and eating;
2. Learned Preferences and Habits
o People from different cultures display very different patterns of food consumption;
westerners may prefer chicken, potato chips, and pizza, while people of other cultural
backgrounds prefer different delicacies such as cow’s brain, grasshoppers, etc.
o Classical conditioning in association to taste preferences:
Ex. Timmy’s dad likes to order hotdogs whenever he visits the ACC for a hockey
game. Timmy likes to eat sushi. Hotdogs are really the only food available when
going to watch a hockey game at the ACC. Over time, Timmy begins to associate
hotdogs with hockey games.
o To a large degree, food preferences are shaped from observational learning; people tend
to only eat familiar foods
3. Stress and Eating
o Stress leads to increased eating in a substantial portion of people!
Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity
• Obesity: the condition of being overweight (major health concern)
• Body mass index (BMI) – an individual’s weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters)
squared – determine whether a person is overweight or obese.
o BMI over 30 = obese o BMI between 25 – 29.9 = overweight
• Obesity rates have doubled in the last two decades BAD NEWS
• Obesity elevates one’s mortality risk; people who are obese are more vulnerable than others to
o Cardiovascular diseases
o Respiratory problems
o Gallbladder diseases
o Arthritis, muscle and skeletal pain
o Some types of cancer
• Do we inherit vulnerability to obesity?
• Twin study (reared apart): identical twins far more similar than fraternal twins in BMI.
• Suggested that genetic factors account for 61% of variability in weight among men and 73%
• Data suggest that some might inherit vulnerability to obesity
Excessive Eating and Inadequate Exercise (Pretty straightforward stuff):
• More availability of none healthy foods = overeating of these types of foods = substantial increase
in weight and decrease in exercise
Sensitivity to External Cues and Eating:
• Stanley Schachter (1968): advanced “externality hypothesis” that obese people are extra
sensitive to external cues (availability and attractiveness of unhealthy foods) that affect hunger
and are relatively insensitive to internal physiological signals, whereas the eating of normal-
weight individuals is regulated by internal signals.
• Judith Rodin (1981): blurred Schachter’s key distinction between internal and external
determinants of hunger; noted the sight, smell, and sound of a grilling steak (external signals) can
elicit insulin secretions (internal signals) that lead to increased hunger. This discredited the
• Herman and Polivy: normative cues vs. sensory cues
o Normative cues: indicators of socially appropriate food intake – what, when, and how much
one should eat.
o Sensory cues: characteristics of the food(s) itself, such as palatability (deliciousness), that
make people more or less likely to consume it.
o They argue that obese people are especially sensitive towards sensory external cues
externality hypothesis making a comeback.
Concept of Set Point:
• Richard Keesey: the body has may have a set point, or a natural point of stability in body weight.
• Set point theory: the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable; natural
point of stability in body weight. • Shifts in weight do not lead to an increase or decrease in number of fat cells. Instead, fat cells
increase or decrease in average size.
• Setting-point theory: weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation (collection)
of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure (outflow) achieves
equilibrium; constellation of factors are involved and point can drift with time little more
encouraging to those who hope to lose weight.
• The set point can change but the person needs to make permanent changes in eating and
exercise (battle against genetics).
• Restrained dieters: people who consciously work overtime to control their eating impulses and
who feel guilty when they fail. Go without eating but are always thinking of food. Disruption of
cognitive control in restrained dieters causes them to eat excessively.
• Dietary restraint also contributes to the tendency to overeat just before beginning a diet.
Restrained eaters show a tendency to “fall off the wagon” before getting on – anticipation of food
deprivation seems to act as another disinhibitor towards excessive eating.
• They are particularly sensitive towards the role of portrayals of body types (males and females) in
• Anorexia Nervosa: young women (and sometimes in men) literally starve themselves, sometimes
• Bulimia Nervosa: young women (and sometimes in men) alternate between binge eating and
purging – eat excessively, then purge to remove most, if not all of the food.
• Eating disorders more prevalent in women than in men; they affect approximately 3% of
Canadian women sometime in their lifetime.
The Human Sexual Response:
• William Masters and Virginia Johnson: conducted groundbreaking research regarding the
physiology of the human sexual response (1980s).
o Recording devices monitoring subjects engaging in sexual activities
o Equipped an artificial penile device with a camera to study physiological reactions inside
the vagina… weird.
• Divided the sexual response into four stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
o Excitement stage:
Level of physical arousal usually rises rapidly; muscle tension, respiration rate, heart
rate, and blood pressure increase in both sexes.
Vasocongestion: engorgement of blood vessels – penile erection and swollen testes
in males; swelling and hardening of the clitoris, and expansion of the vaginal lips,
and vaginal lubrication in females.
o Plateau stage:
Physiological arousal usually continues to build (at a much slower pace)
Females: further Vasocongestion, producing a tightening of the vaginal entrance Males: men secrete a bit of fluid at the tip of the penis (not ejaculation but may
Fluctuation in arou