Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion
(Textbook notes) pages 439 – 479
• Motivation: study of the processes involved in goal-directed behaviour this behaviour is often
associated with specific emotions (e.g. receiving results from a test; different emotions felt
depending on the grade).
• Motivation + emotion often linked!
Motivational Theories and Concepts
• Motives: needs, wants, interests, and desires propelling people in certain directions.
• Drive theories apply the concept of homeostasis: state of physiological equilibrium or stability.
• Drives: an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that
• Drive reduction example: experiencing hunger (drive) during a long lecture… this internal
of hunger motivates you to obtain food to satisfy your hungry, thus reducing the tension and
restores physiological equilibrium/stability.
• *** Drive theories CANNOT explain ALL motivation homeostasis appears irrelevant to some
human motives (e.g. stopping for ice-cream after seeing an advertisement advertising the ice
• Incentive theories propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states.
• Incentives: external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour. • Drive and incentive models of motivation are often contrasted as push-versus-pull theories.
- Drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions
(source of motivation lies INSIDE the organism)
Example: hunger pushes you internally to go eat something.
- Incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions
(source of motivation lies OUTSIDE the organism; environment).
- Therefore, incetive models don’t operate according to the principal of homeostasis.
Example: you get an A on a test, this pulls you towards studying to get a good mark
again. Or say you see a juicy steak, you will be pulled towards it.
• Expectancy-value models: takes into account of the reality that some goals/desires cannot
- According to the Expectancy-value models one’s motivation to pursue a particular course of
action depends on 2 factors;
(1) Expectancy about one’s chances of achieving the incentive
(2) How appealing something is to you; so the value of the desired incentive.
Example: Motivation of pursuing a promotion at work; you will consider the two factors. 1. Is it
likely that I can get that promotion (expectancy)? 2. How appealing is this promotion to me
I. Human motives and those of other species are products of evolution known as
natural selection that have adaptive value in terms of fostering reproductive fitness
- Natural selection favour(likes) behaviours that maximize reproductive success – passing on
genes to the next generation.
- Dominance in species a crucial motive providing a reproductive or survival advantage.
-Dominance thought to be a greater need in men that women b/c it can facilitate males’
reproductive success in variety of ways:
(1) females may prefer mating with dominant males
(2)dominant males may poach females from subordinate males
(3) dominant males may intimidate male rivals in competition for sexual access… etc. * good
example Range and Diversity of Human Motives:
• Motivational theorists agree that humans display an enormous diversity of motives.
• They distinguish between two different motives
1. biological motives (originate in bodily needs, such as hunger)
2. social motives (originate in social experiences, such as the need for achievement).
• Examples of Biological Motives in Humans:
o Hunger & thirst
o Appropriate body temperature
o Excretory (eliminating bodily wastes)
o Sleep & rest
• Examples of Social Motives in Humans:
o Achievement (excel)
o Affiliation (forming social bonds)
o Autonomy (independence)
o Dominance (influence or control over others)
o Exhibition (make an impression on others)
o Play (fun, amusement)
The Motivation of Hunger and Eating:
Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
- Cannon: stomach contractions cause hunger theory eventually discredited. They do not
cause hunger but they accompany hunger.
- Proven through stomach removal studies: patients still experienced hunger without a
- Then what causes hunger? • Brain Regulation
- Hunger experience controlled in the hypothalamus (regulates a variety of biological
related to survival).
- Lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH)
are areas in the hypothalamus that regulates hunger known before as the on-and-off
switches that control hunger… NOT THE CASE TODAY!
- Today, scientists believe two other areas of the hypothalamus – arcuate nucleus and the
paraventricular nucleus – play a larger role in the modulation of hunger.
- More of a focus on neural circuits that pass through areas of the hypothalamus rather
than on anatomical centers in the brain.
• Glucose and Digestive Regulation
Glucose: simple sugar that is an important source of energy
- most food taken into the body is converted into glucose.
- Actions that increase glucose level can make people feel satiated/satisfied.
- Actions that decrease blood glucose level can increase hunger.
o Glucostatic Theory of Hunger:
-fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by glucostats where they
influence the experience of hunger.
- The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is sensitive to glucose fluctuations that
contribute to the modulation of eating
- The digestive system also contains mechanisms that control hunger.
- The vagus nerve indicates fullness/stretching and richness of nutrients.
- Hormones circulateing in the blood stream also contribute to regulation of hunger.
- Secretion of the pancreatic hormone, insulin, increases hunger
- Leptin hormone also provides the hypothalamus with information about the body’s fat
- The ghrelin and CCK hormones carry hunger and satiety signals from the signals to the
stomach to the brain -
Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
• Social and environmental factors govern eating to a considerable extent. Three key
environmental factors are:
(1) availability of food (2) learned preferences and habits, and (3) stress.
1. Food Availability and Related Cues:
-The following variables influence food consumption;
1. Palatability: the better the food tastes, the more of it people consume (also experienced in
rats and other animals)
2. Quantity available: the amount of food eaten is determined by the amount of food
available; people tend to eat what is in front of them.
3. Variety: humans + animals increase their consumption when a greater variety of foods is
available (ex. Overeating at Buffets).
-As you eat a specific food, its incentive value declines (phenomenon called sensory-specific
satiety). If only a few foods available, the appeal of them can decline more quickly then if there
is more foods available of different variety.
4. Presence of other: 44% of people eat more when they eat with other people; food is social!
•Hunger can be triggered by exposure to pictures, written descriptions, and video depictions
of attractive foods (incentive qualities of food clearly govern hunger and eating;
2. Learned Preferences and Habits
o People from different cultures display very different patterns of food consumption;
-westerners may prefer chicken, potato chips, and pizza, while people of other cultural
backgrounds prefer different delicacies such as cow’s brain, grasshoppers, etc.
o Classical conditioning in association to taste preferences:
Ex. Timmy’s dad likes to order hotdogs whenever he visits the ACC for a hockey
game. Timmy likes to eat sushi. Hotdogs are really the only food available when going to watch a hockey game at the ACC. Over time, Timmy begins to associate
hotdogs with hockey games.
o To a large degree, food preferences are shaped from observational learning; people tend
to only eat familiar foods
3. Stress and Eating
o Stress leads to increased eating in a substantial portion of people!
- Stress induced eating more common in chronic dieters
• Females seek out sweets and fats CHOCOLATE!!!!! (Chocolate over sex!!)
• Males seek out fats and salt. Pepperoni on that pizza?!!!
• Negative emotions/mood disorders are often accompanied with changes in eating
patterns (depression, anxiety, PTSD). Many eat to feel better! (Doesn’t work in a
Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity
Obesity: the condition of being overweight (major health concern)
- To measure if one is obese or over weight, you do- Body mass index (BMI) – an
individual’s weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared
- BMI over 30 = obese BMI between 25 – 29.9 = overweight
• Obesity rates have doubled in the last two decades in Canada especially in children
• Obesity elevates one’s mortality risk; people who are obese are more vulnerable than
• Cardiovascular diseases
• Respiratory problems
• Gallbladder diseases • Strokes
• Arthritis, muscle and skeleta
- -Many blame both fattier foods (such as fast and/or convenience foods (Frozen deep
dish pizza anyone?) and inactivity due to too much “screen time” and new
technologies/labour saving devices. (Lower income and urban dwellers most vulnerable)
—majority of Canadian kids are not active enough
- -Ancestors likely did not have protein and fats so readily available to them
- Adoption study adoptees resembled biological not adoptive parents in BMI.
- Twin study (reared apart) identical twins far more similar than fraternal twins
- Genetic factors account for 61% of variability in Men and 73% in females
- Data suggests that some might inherit vulnerability to obesity.
Excessive Eating and Inadequate Exercise
- More availability of none healthy foods = overeating of these types of foods = substantial
increase in weight and decrease in exercise
Sensitivity to External Cues and Eating
- Herman and Polivy: normative cues vs. sensory cues
- Normative cues: indicators of socially appropriate food intake – what, when, and how
- one should eat.
- Sensory cues: characteristics of the food(s) itself, such as palatability
- make people more or less likely to consume it.
- They argue that obese people are especially sensitive towards sensory external cues
Concept of Set Point
- Richard Keesey: the body has may have a set point, or a natural point of stability in
body weight. - Set point theory: the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly
stable; natural point of stability in body weight.
- Shifts in weight do not lead to an increase or decrease in number of fat cells.
Instead, fat cells increase or decrease in average size.
- Setting-point theory: weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation
(collection) of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure
(outflow) achieves equilibrium; constellation of factors are involved and point can drift
with time little more encouraging to those who hope to lose weight.
- The set point can change but the person needs to make permanent changes in
eating and exercise (battle against genetics).
Restrained dieters: people who consciously work overtime to control their eating impulses and
who feel guilty when they fail. Go without eating but are always thinking of food.
Disruption of cognitive control in restrained dieters causes them to eat excessively. So if they
mess up on their diet, they will eat out of control.
• Dietary restraint also contributes to the tendency to overeat just before beginning a diet.
-Restrained eaters show a tendency to “fall off the wagon” before getting on – anticipation of
deprivation seems to act as another disinhibitor towards excessive eating.
• They are particularly sensitive towards the role of portrayals of body types (males and
females) in media
- Anorexia Nervosa: young women (and sometimes in men) literally starve
themselves, sometimes to death.
- Bulimia Nervosa: young women (and sometimes in men) alternate between binge
eating and purging – eat excessively, then purge to remove most, if not all of the
- Eating disorders more prevalent in women than in men; they affect approximately 3%
Sexual Motivation and Behaviour
The Human Sexual Response • William Masters and Virginia Johnson: conducted groundbreaking research regarding the
physiology of the human sexual response (1980s).
- Recording devices monitoring subjects engaging in sexual activities
- Equipped an artificial penile device with a camera to study physiological reactions inside
the vagina… weird.
• Divided the sexual response into four stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
• Excitement stage
- Level of physical arousal usually rises rapidly; muscle tension, respiration rate, heart
rate, and blood pressure increase in both sexes.
Vasocongestion: engorgement of blood vessels – penile erection and swollen testes in
males; swelling and hardening of the clitoris, and expansion of the vaginal lips, and
vaginal lubrication in females
• Plateau stage
- Physiological arousal usually continues to build (at a much slower pace)
- Females: further Vasocongestion, producing a tightening of the vaginal entrance
- Males: men secrete a bit of fluid at the tip of the penis (not ejaculation but may contain
- Fluctuation in arousal normal for both sexes when foreplay is lengthy
• Orgasm stage
Orgasm: occurs when sexual arousal reaches its peak intensity.
- Heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure increase sharply during an orgasm.
- Ejaculation of seminal fluid in males.
- Women more likely than men to be multiorgasmic: more than one climax within one
sexual encounter. They’re also more likely than men to experience no orgasm during
• Resolution stage - Physiological changes produced by sexual arousal subside (decrease).
- ***IF ORGASM NOT ACHIEVED: the reduction in sexual tension may be
relatively slow and sometimes unpleasant.
- ***IF ORG