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Modules 27-31.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Modules 27-31 Thinking - Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating o Activities forming concepts: a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people  Simply our thinking - Form thoughts through prototypes: a mental image/best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories o Ex. as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird such a robin Problem solving - Algorithm: a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error prone (use of heuristics) o Step by step procedure guaranteed answer - Heuristic: a simple thinking strategy that often problems efficiently: usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms - Insight: a sudden realization of a problem’s solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions - Activity in the frontal lobe Forming judgements - Confirmation bias: a tendency to search for information that supports our preconception and ignore or distort contradictory evidence - Fixation- an inability to see a problem form a fresh perspective - Mental set: a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past - Perceptual set- predispose what we perceive a mental set predisposes how we think - Intuition: an effortless, immediate automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit conscious reasoning - Availability heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps vividness) we presume such events are common - Overconfidence: the tendency to be more confident then correct – to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgement - Belief perseverance: clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which the were formed had been discredited - Framing; the way an issue is posted, how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments o How information is presented sways our decisions and judgments o Ex. Surgeon tells patients – 10% die in this surgery, the other tells – 90% live in this surgery - NOTE – those who understand the power of framing can use it to influence our decisions Power of intuition - Intuition is huge – benefit from letting our brain work out the problem (when complex) than thinking about it, letting a problem incubate while we attend other things - Intuition is usually adaptive – enable us to react quickly (intuitive reactions) - Intuition is recognition born of experience – it is implicit knowledge what we’ve learned but can’t fully explain - NOTE – intuition can be perilous (especially when we overthink/over feel) as we do when judging risks. Animal thinking - They display insight o Ex. Place a nut out of reach, place a short stick in the cage they are able to connect the two- used the small stick to get the long stick to then use the long stick to reach - Chimpanzees see chimpanzees do - A baboon know everyone’s voice within its 80 member troop - Sheep can recognize and remember individual faces Module 28 Language and thought - Language: our spoken written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning Language structure - Phonemes: are the smallest distinctive sound unit o Chat – ch , a , t o Bat – b, a, t o Consonants phonemes carry more information than vowel phonemes - Morphemes: are the smallest units that carry meaning in a given language o A few morphemes are also phonemes (I, a) o Prefix pre- in prefix, or suffix –ed - Grammar: is the system of rules that enables us to communicate with one another Baby learn - Receptive language – the ability to understand what is said to and about them - Productive language – the ability to produce words, matures after their receptive language - Babbling stage: beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language o 10 months the baby’s trained ear can identify household language o Without exposure to other languages babies lose their ability to hear and produce sounds and tones found outside their native language - One word stage: the stage in speech development, from about age 1-2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words o Mostly nouns – ex. Doggy! (may b=mean look at the dog over there) - Two word stage: beginning about age 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two=word statements - Telegraphic speech: early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram “go car” using mostly nouns and verbs o Ex. “want juice” - 24+ start using more complete sentences Explaining language development - Noam Chomsky – universal language- all language share some basic elements - We are not born with a built in specific language Statistical learning - Human infants show a remarkable ability to learn statistical aspects of human speech (that adults will struggle to) - Not only does their brain discern word breaks – they statistically analyze which syllables - Deaf children who learn sign language after age 9 never learn it as well as those who lose their hearing at age 9 after learning English - In deaf people they exhibit enhanced attention to peripheral vision, the auditory cortex remains largely intact but becomes responsive to touch and visual input Brain and language - Aphasia: impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (speaking impairment) or Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) - Broca’s area: controls language expression an area of the frontal lobe, usually in left hemisphere that directs muscle movement involved in speech - Wernicke’s area: controls language reception – a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression usually in left temporal lobe - Animals show impressive comprehension and communication - Ape vocabularies and sentence are simple – like 2 year old - Perceptual set – show that when information is unclear we tend to see what we want or expect to see it - NOTE: if by language we mean verbal/signed expression of complex grammar (humans only possess) however if you say an ability to communicate through a meaningful sequence of symbols (apes) Thinking and language - Linguistic determinism: what’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think - Our words may not determine what we think but they do influence our thinking - Think with images ex. To turn the shower water to cold you don’t say it, you thought not in words but with implicit (non-declarative procedural) memory – a mental picture - NOTE: its better to spend your fantasy time planning how to get somewhere than to dwell on the imagined destination - Thinking affects our language which affects our thought Module 29 Introduction to intelligence - Intelligence: mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations - Intelligence test: a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores - Charles spearman - general intelligence (g): a general intelligence factor that according to spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test - Factor analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (factors) on a test used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score - General intelligence: according to spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test - Savant syndrome: a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill (computation/drawing) Sternberg’s three intelligences - Analytical (academic-problem solving) intelligence o Intelligence test - Creative intelligence o reacting adaptively to novel situations - practical intelligence o measures skill at writing, motivating people, delegating tasks, responsibilities, and reading people (high scores = high salaries) pg 386 Intelligence and creativity Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas - a score bove 120 on a standard intelligence test – supports creativity - intelligent tests that demand a SINGLE correct answer is convergent thinking o injury to left partial lobe damages this ability - creativity tests require divergent thinking o injury to frontal lobes can leave reading, writing, and arithmetic skills intact but destroy imagination Sternberg identified five components of creativity 1. expertise – well developed base of knowledge 2. imaginative thinking skills – ability to see things in novel ways to recognize patterns and to make connections 3. venturesome personality – seeks new experiences, tolerates ambiguity and risk and perserveres in overcoming obstacles 4. intrinsic motivation – being driven more by interest, satisfaction, and challenge than by external pressures 5. creative environment – sparks, supports, and refines creative ideas Emotional intelligence - social intelligence – know-how involved in successfully comprehending social situations - emotional intelligence: ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions 1. perceiving emotions (faces, music, stories) 2. understanding (predict and how they change) 3. managing (express in varied situations) 4. using (enable adaptive/creative thinking) - scoring higher = higher- quality interaction with friends - avoid being hijacked by overwhelming depression, anxiety, or anger - sensitive to emotional cues - better job performance - succeed in marriage, job, parenting situation, - high general intelligence generally = diminished emotional intelligence Intelligence is having ample grey matter (neural cell bodies) plus ample white matter (axons) more efficient communication between brain centres (frontal and parietal) Brain function - smart people use less energy to solve problem - verbal intelligence scores are predictable from the speed with which people retrieve information from memory - quick-wittedness speed of perception and speed of neural processing - masking image- another image that overrides he lingering afterimage of the incomplete stimulus - those whose brains require the least inspection time to register a simple stimulus tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests module 30 intelligent tests: a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitude and comparing with others (numerical scores) - therefore a dull child would perform as a younger child than a bright child would test as a older child - metal age: devised by Binet performance test, so a child that does as well as an 8 year old is said to have a mental age of 8 - Binet and Simon o made no assumptions concerning why a child is slow o Binet leaned toward environmental explanation o practical purpose – his test to improve children’s education NOT MEAURE inborn intelligence but he feared it would label children and their opportunities - standard-Binet: widely used American revision (by Terman Stanford uni) of Binet’s original intelligence test - Intelligence quotient (IQ): ration of mental age to chronicle age, multiplied by 100. - Represent test takers performance relative to the average performance of others the same age - (85-115) average scores - Eugenics – much criticized 19 th century movement that proposed measuring human traits and using the results to encourage only smart people and fit people to reproduce - Achievement tests: asses what a person has learned - Aptitude test: predict a person’s future performance (capacity to learn) - Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS): most widely used contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests - 15 subsets including these: 1. Similarities – commonality of two objects 2. Vocabulary – naming pictured objects – definitions 3. Block design – visual abstract processing 4. Letter-number sequencing – in hearing a series of number and letter repeat in numerical and alphabetical order Standardization: defining meaningful scores by comparing with performance of pretested group Normal curve: bell shaped curve describes physical and psychological attribute (Weschlers intelligence scores) Scales over a period are standardized Flynn effect – average person’s test scores in 1920 was todays only 76 – people are getting smarter Reliability: extent to which a test yields consistent results (retesting/split half) - To scores correlate higher the tests reliability Validity: measures or predicts what it is supposed to - Content validity: extent to which test samples and behaviour that is of interest - Predictive validity: success with which a test predicts the behaviour it is designed to predict (criterian related validity) – future prediction - SAT is less successful in predicting first year college grades - When validating a test using a wide range of people but then use it in a restricted range of people it loses much of its predictive validity Aging and intelligence - Cross sectional studies – older adults give fewer correct answers than younger adults in intelligence tests - Longitudinal – cohort: a group of people from given time period o Cross sectional studies compared not only to different ages but also two different eras - Intelligence is not a single trait but rather several distinct - Crystallized intelligence: our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends
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