Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 4: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
I. Psychophysics: Basic Concepts and Issues
1. Virtual Agnosia – inability to recognize objects through sight.
2. Sensation – the stimulation of sensory organs.
a. Involves the absorption of energy (i.e. light or sound waves) by sensory
organs (i.e. eyes, ears)
3. Perception – the selection, organization, and interpretation of the sensory
a. Organizing and translating sensory input into something meaningful.
4. Psychophysics – the study of how physical stimuli are translated into
a. Important psychologist – Fechner (Germany).
B. Thresholds – Looking for Limits
1. Stimulus – any detectable input from the environment.
2. Threshold – a dividing point between energy levels that do and do not have a
3. Absolute Threshold – minimum amount of stimulus that an organism can
detect. Defines the boundaries of an organism’s sensory capabilities.
a. As Stimulus intensity increases, probability of responding to a stimuli
b. As such, absolute threshold is the stimulus intensity that is detected 50%
of the time.
C. Weighing the Differences: The JND
1. Just Noticeable Difference (JND) – smallest difference in the amount of
stimulation that a specific sense can detect.
2. JND is greater for heavier objects than lighter ones.
3. Smallest detectable difference is a constant proportion of the weight of the
4. Webber’s law – the size of a just noticeable difference is the constants
proportion of the size of the initial stimulus, known as the “Webber Fraction”.
a. Applies not only to weight but to all senses.
5. As the stimulus increase in magnitude, the JND becomes larger.
D. Psychophysical Scaling
1. Fechner’s Law – the magnitude of a sensory experience is proportional to the
number of JND’s that the stimulus causing the experience is above absolute
a. Constant increments in stimulus intensity produce smaller and smaller
increases in the perceived magnitude of sensation (i.e. Light bulbs in a
2. Questioned by Stevens, who came up with idea of Magnitude estimation –
asking subjects to assign numbers to stimuli on the basis of how intense they
appeared to be.
a. Magnitude estimation is the best way to map the relations between
stimulus intensity and sensory experience.
E. Signal Detection Theory
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 4: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
1. Signal detection theory proposes that the detection of stimuli involves
decision processes as well as sensory processes which are both influenced by a
variety of factors beside stimulus intensity.
a. Your Performance will depend on the criterion you set for how sure you
must feel before you react, the level of noise in the system.
2. Detectability is measured in probability and depends on decision making
processes as well as sensory processes.
F. Perception without Awareness
1. Subliminal Perception – the registration of sensory input without conscious
2. Subliminal stimulation generates weak effects.
G. Sensory Adaptation
1. Sensory adaptation is a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation.
2. Automatic, built in process that keeps people tuned in to the changes rather
than the constants – ignore the obvious, and watch for threats.
II. Our Sense of Sight: The Visual System
A. The Stimulus: Light
1. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave.
2. Vary in amplitude (height), wavelength, purity.
a. Amplitude – perception of brightness
b. Wavelengths – perception of color
c. Purity – perception of richness/saturation
B. The Eye: A Living Optical Instrument
1. Two Purposes:
a. Channel light to the neural tissue that receives it (retina)
b. House the retina
2. Light enters the eye through the cornea (transparent window). Cornea and
Lens form an upside down image of the object on the retina.
3. Lens – transparent eyes structure that focuses the light rays falling on the
a. Made up of relatively soft tissue, capable of adjustments and
b. Accommodation – when the curve of the lens adjusts to alter visual
4. Nearsightedness – close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects blurry.
a. Due to the focus of light from distant objects falling short of the retina.
5. Farsightedness – farther objects are seen clearly but close seem blurry.
a. Due to the focus of light from near objects falling behind the retina
6. Iris – colored ring surrounding pupil (black center of the eye)
7. Pupil – the opening in the center of the iris that helps regulate the amount of
light passing into the rear chamber of the eye.
C. The Retina: The Brain’s Envoy in the Eye
1. Retina- the neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye. Absorbs
light, processes images, and sends visual info to the brain.
2. Optic Disk - a hole in the retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye.
3. Visual Receptors – Rods and Cones
Chapter 4: sensation and perception: psychophysics: basic concepts and issues, introduction. Chanaps: virtual agnosia inability to recognize objects through sight, sensation the stimulation of sensory organs. a. Iris colored ring surrounding pupil (black center of the eye) Absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual info to the brain: optic disk - a hole in the retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye, visual receptors rods and cones. Chanaps: visual agnosia an inability to recognize objects. May be due to result somewhere along the visual pathway: prosopagnosia inability to recognize familiar faces, viewing the world in color, the stimulus for color, wavelengths hold greatest influence. Most of these people are dichromats: opponent process theory of color vision, complementary colors - pairs of colors that produce gray tones when mixed together, afterimage visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed. Impossible figures objects that can be represented in 2d pictures but can"t.