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Chapter 2

PSYC 2030 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Naturalistic Observation, Institutional Animal Care And Use Committee

Course Code
PSYC 2030
Lisa Fiksenbaum

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Chapter Two: Ethics in Psychological Research
Ethical issues must be addresses at all stages of the researche process
ETHICS: a set of “standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a
First code of ethics 1953
CRITICAL INCIDENTS TECHNIQUE: the committee surveyed the entire
membership of the APA, asking them to provide examples of “incidents” of unethical
conduct that they knew about firsthand and “to indicate what they perceived as being the
ethical issue involved”
Five General Principles of the APA Code of Ethics:
o Principle A: Beneficence and Non-Malfeasance:
Establishes the principle that psychologists must constantly weigh the
benefits and the costs of the research they conduct and seek to achieved
the greatest good in their research
o Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility
Researchers to be constantly aware of their responsibility to society and
reminds them always to exemplify the highest standards of professional
behaviour in their role as researchers.
o Principle C: Integrity
Compels researchers to be scrupulously honest in all aspects of research
o Principle D: Justice
Obligates researchers to treat everyone involved in the research
enterprise with fairness and to maintain a level of expertise that reduces
the chances of their work showing any form of bias
o Principle E: Respect for people’s rights and dignity
Translates into a special need for research psychologist to be vigorous in
their efforts to safeguard the welfare and protect the rights of those
volunteering as research participants
Ethical Guidelines or Research with Humans
Judging Benefits and Costs: The IRB
The basic dilemma faced is to weigh the scientific value of the study being planned (a
benefit) against the degree of intrusion on those contributing data to the study (a cost).
When planning a research study, the experimenter always faces the conflicting
requirements of
o (a) Producing meaningful research results that could ultimately increase our
knowledge of behaviour and add to the general good
o (b) Respecting the rights and welfare of the study’s participants and causing them
no harm
INTERNATIONAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB): this group consists of at least five
people usually faculty members from five departments, at least one form the
community and a minimum of one nonscientist
o Found in virtually all colleges
o Researchers seeking approval submit:
Rationale for the study and a description of research procedures
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