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Chapter 6

Ch. 6 - Probability.docx

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PSYC 2530
Anne Russon

Ch. 6 - Probability Sunday, November 11, 2012 5:53 PM PSYC 2530 Introductory Statistics Chapter 6: Probability  Goal of inferential statistics is to begin with a sample and then answer a general question about the population. We reach this goal in a two-stage process: o 1) Identify the types of samples that would probably be obtained from a specific population o 2) Decide which population your sample likely came from   Probability always ranges between 0 and 1  Probability must have two components (called random sampling with replacement) o Equal chance o Constant probability  A random sample requires that each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected  An independent random sample requires that each individual has an equal chance of being selected and that the probability of being selected stays constant from one selection to the next if more than one individual is selected.  Tschebychev: o ± 1 sd = 68.2% o ± 2 sd = 95.4% o ± 3 sd = 99.7%  Probability = proportion of a frequency distribution located under an area of the curve  Using the unit normal table (table B.1): o 1) The body always corresponds to the larger part of the distribution whether it is on the right-hand side or the left-hand side. Similarly, the tail is always the smaller section whether it is on the right or the left. o 2) Because the normal distribution is symmetrical, the proportions on the right-hand side are exactly the same as the corresponding proportions on the left-hand side. To find proportions for negative z-scores, you must look up the corresponding proportions for the positive values of z. o 3) Proportions are always positive. o The table
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