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Chapter 4

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PSYC 3140
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Chapter 4 – Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behaviour - A categorical approach to classification assumes that distinctions among members of different categories are qualitative (difference in quality then quantity) - Major domains of information in the DSM-IV-TR: Axis 1 – Clinical Disorders and Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Attention (includes all mental disorders listed in the manual except those listed on axis 2) Axis 2 – Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation (includes all personality disorders and/or mental retardation. Clinician can also list maladaptive personality features, characteristics defense mechanisms, or coping styles) Axis 3 – General Medication Conditions (includes medical problems that can cause symptoms of an Axis 1 or Axis 2 disorder or act as a psychological stressor) Axis 4 – Psychosocial and Environmental Problems (includes life events from the past year that may have an impact on diagnosis or treatment, such as divorce or unemployment) Axis 5 – Global Assessment of Functioning (describes the person’s level of psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a single scale from 1 to 100) - Concurrent validity is concerned with the present time and with correlations between the disorder and other symptoms, cirmustances, and test procedures - Predictive validity is concerned with the future and with the stability of the problem over time - Reliability = consistent measurement across time and observers - Validity = appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness of inferences made from test scores - Inter-rater reliability = two raters agree - Test-retest reliability = test scores are similar across time - Internal consistency reliability = test items are correlated - Clinical interview = information gathering opportunity, interested in the behavior during the interview as well as the emotions attached to the responses of the interview - Structured interview = structured set of questions provide
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