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Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

5 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 3140
Joel Goldberg

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Chapter 2 - Paradigm, a set of basic assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific inquiry - Biological paradigm – perspective holds that mental disorders are caused by aberrant biological processes o Medical model or the disease model - Hall said tha insanity exists when the Ego is dominated and controlled by the influence from a disease o Particularly in women, possibly something wrong in their ovaries - Heredity can predispose a person to have schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorder and dementia - Genotype is unobservable genetic constitution o Phenotype is the observable behavioural characteristics, such as anxiety o Genotype is fixed at birth  Phenotype changes over time - Monozygotic (one egg) usually have the same genetic makeup o Dizygotic usually have 50;50 makeup difference o Recent studies show that maybe not 100 percent makeup the actual monozygotic twins  Slight differences - 3 types of infants o The resilient  Cope well with adversity  Quite adaptive and high functioning (HIGH IQ) o The overcontrolling  Overly inhibited and prone to distress  Linked with shyness, loneliness and moderate self esteem o The undercontrolling  Impulsive and can seem out of control  Delinquency and externalizing problems, school conduct difficulties and low levels of IQ - Reductionism refers to the view that whatever is being studied can and should be reduced to its most basic form - Behavioural is sometimes referred to as learning - Cognitive paradigm - Behaviourists believed the abnormal behaviour was learned o John Watson  Switch thinking to learning because of his studies - Three types of learning came from behaviourism o Classical conditioning discovered by Ivan Pavlov  Unconditioned stimulus and response • Conditioned stimulus and response  Tendency of schizophrenia to make inappropriate associates can be a result of this o Operant conditioning introduced by BF Skinner  the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences.  Applied to behaviour that operates on the environment  Stimuli become occasions for responses to occur  Discriminative stimulus – external events that in effect tell an organism that if it performs a certain behaviour, a certain consequence will follow  Introduced positive and negative reinforcement  Can also cause abnormal behaviour o Modelling; learn by watching and imitating others  Albert Bandura and others  Could explain the acquisition of abnormal behaviour  Children of parents with phobias may acquire similar behaviour patterns, through modelling - Treating psychopathology is termed behaviour therapy o Attempt to change abnormal behavior, thougts and feelings  Done by applying in a clinical cont
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