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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Ch 2: Gender ST’s and Other Gender Biases 2/3/2013 11:24:00 AM Stereotypes (ST): belief/assumption associated w. particular groups of ppl Gender ST: beliefs we associate w. females & males Prejudice: emotional rxn/attitude toward a certain group of ppl  Can be either a –ve OR +ve attitude (considering all women to be warm and friendly is still a prejudice) Discrimination: biased treatment of a certain group of ppl  A gender bias towards women can incorporate all 3 types of issues BIASED REPRESENTATIONS OF WOMEN AND MEN Gender Biases Throughout History  Prior to 1960’s, history on women seems invisible (mainly bc they were confined to working in home or w. family)  Throughout centuries, philosophers depicted women as inferior to men – Aristotle thought women couldn’t fully develop into rational beings; he also said their more envious & tell more lies then men  Mill: British phil who argued for equal rights/opps for women – able to own property, vote, be edu, choose a profession (textbooks have often omitted his views on women) Gender Biases in Religion and Mythology  Portrayed more –ve in religion then men: Adam and Eve – Eve is made FROM Adam; Eve gives into temptation and leads Adam to sin  Women can now serve many positions in the church – started becoming rabbis and scholars, but they cannot go higher then being a lay leader  Chinese yin is considered feminine, dark, ignorant and evil; yang is masculine, light, intellect and goodness  Islamic ppl vary widely in their treatment of women  Hindus: women are defined in terms of husband; unmarried/widows have no personal identity – Kali (who is blood thirsty)  Overall, women are: evil, terrifying sorceresses, virtuous (to young) o Women live in adrocentrism/norm-male problem: men are the standard to compare & women are the 2 ndsex Gender Biases in Language  Usage of subordinate or –ve terms to refer to women o Master vs. mistress; wizard vs. witch, major vs. majorette  Infantilize women using lang (appear less competent this way) o Adult women = gals or girls; adult men = men  Masculine/androcentric generic: use of masculine nouns/pronouns to refer to all humans o Businessman, man-made, chairman, master of ceremonies, o These generic words are shown to produce more thoughts abt males then both genders (becomes more then a grammatical problem – is also a political and practical problem) o Studies show that people understand the term HE refers to males, rather than to both males and females. o Masculine generic terms encourage people to think about males o Psychology was viewed as a less being a less attractive career for women when the masculine generic was used. Gender Biases in the Media (8 conclusions) 1. Women are relatively invisible – less likely to find them comment as an opinion columnist; not many women sports/sportscasters; men are more likely to appear on TV or in ads 2. Relatively inaudible: voice praising a product on TV is commonly a mans (70-90% of the time) 3. Seldom shown working outside the home: men are likely shown in employment settings, when they do mention women working, they are rarely actually shown doing work. 4. Often shown doing housework: when men are shown it is humorously incompetent , shown doing housework to the same extent as reality 5. M&W are represented differently: treat men more seriously, women are more likely shown to be in a reclining body position 6. Bodies are used differently: rarely show overweight women; comics and games: women have exaggerated boobs and tiny waists 7. Women of colour are underrepresented and are shown in a bias way women of colour are usually shown as good/bad girls 8. Lower soc class women are underrepresented and often shown in bias: i.e. Jerry Springer show , usually in a way to make them look bad. Doesn’t show the accurate lifestyle they suffer Effects of Stereotyped Representations  The media reflects reality: women are unseen, do housework and are unheard  The women in college that watched the non-traditional ad showed greater self-confidence  Media also influences reality by changing ppl’s attitudes and cognitive performance: women become less motivated to hold leadership roles; both m&w hold less feminist attitudes bc of ads PEOPLES BELIEFS ABT WOMEN AND MEN The Content of Stereotypes  Communion: a concern for your r/s w. other ppl – terms gentle and warm are associated w. this (STly feminine)  Agency: concern w. your own self-interests – being competitive or self-confident are terms associated w. this (STly masculine) o Women’s agency scores are increasing but men’s communion scores are not. Stereotypes abt M&W from Different Ethnic Groups  Ppl have different ST of genders b.w different ethnic groups; also have ST’s b.w the good and bad ppl in those groups (subtypes) o Consistent w. idea of intersectionality (each person belongs to many diff social groups Subject Variables That Could Influence ST’s  Stimulus variables: variables of person we’re judging (ie. ethnicity)  Stimulus variables is characteristic of a person to which other people react. So gender as a stimulus variable would mean that we are reacting differently to people based on their gender.  Subject variables: characteristics of ppl who hold the ST  Subject variable is a characteristic within a person that influences the way he or she acts. So gender as a subject variable would be how the gender of that person would influence the way they act. o Based on how/where we were raised (however there are also universal ST’s no matter where we come from) o Men have stronger ST’s than women; no effect when looking at differences found in different ethnicity or culture (large differences w/in ANY group of individual) o W/in each gender there are substantial differences in the strength of the stereotype. o Where the person comes from doesn’t have an effect on the strength of his/her stereotype. Ethnic background does not have a consistent effect on North American gender stereotypes  Stereotypes about men and women ofter depend on the target’s ethnicity group  Although its hard to compare tests used to measure gender stereotypes in different cultures, people in different cultures share fairly similar gender stereotypes. Implicit Gender ST’s  Explicit Gender ST: kind of ST you’re aware of when being tested o i.e Do you believe m or w are better at math? o Can lead to responses that are socially desirable rather than honest answer  Implicit gender ST: automatic St you reveal when your not aware of what is being tested (uses the Implicit Association Test)  IAT: if 2 words are related, they can rapidly be paired together (known as stereotype consistent pairings) o White ppl rapidly respond to +ve words + white but NOT black ppl + positive words  Results of pairing words test showed that participants respond fast to stereotype consistent pairings than to inconsistent ones. Math and males go together. o This suggests that people reveal strong gender stereotypes using implicit measure but deny this when using explicit measure The Complexity of Contemporary Sexism 3 components of prejudice: (1) attitude towards women’s competence, (2) attitude towards women’s pleasantness, (3) ambivalent sexism Attitudes Toward Women’s Co
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