PSYC 4010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Evolutionary Developmental Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Epigenetics

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
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Child Development: Thinking about Theories
Chapter 2: pg 26-44
From Darwin to DNA: Biologically Based Theories of Development
How far was Darwin really the forefather of developmental psychology?
Individual differences, the adaptation of organisms to the environment and a broadening
of investigative methodologies
Natural selection missing in developmental psychology
Weak influence of Darwinian theory on developmental psychology
1. Phylogeny and ontogeny (differences)
2. Methodology
3. Moral values
Ethology
Innate behaviours
Critical period/sensitive period
Imprinting
Researched based on observation, focus on proximate behaviour than ultimate factors
(broader perspective function and evolution)
Sociobiology
Wilson; genes to survive and reproduce
3 tenets
1. Interspecies comparisons and notion of homology
2. Notion of heritability
3. Adaptation outcomes of evolution
Essence of the approach human is subtenant of genes, selfish gene, homology and
hereditary estimates, adaptation and any criticisms in the approach
Criticisms: hereditary estimates problems with this not enough research
Evolutionary developmental psychology
Epigenetics interplay between genetic and ecological conditions to determine the
phenotype
Attachment = epigenetic process
Theory of mind
Epigenetic processes are responsible for phenotypes
Reading is a cultural expression of language
Behaviour genetics = a focus on todays nature/nurture debate
Individual differences
Scarr: genotype-environment correlations rather than gene-environment interactions
Additivity principle
Wahlsten importance of the interaction between genes and environment
Scarr & Baumrind
Too much importance on genetic influences on behaviour (behaviour genetics)
Proximal process interactions that drive development, and their quality will affect
heritability estimates
Niche-picking organisms shape their environment; genotypes drive experiences
Bioecological environment (Bronfrenbrennar)
More important place to environment influences on development in the biological model
More recent biological view that individual and group differences in developmental
outcomes are mainly genetically driven
Brain and behaviour in development
Relatively neglected (during most of the 21st century)
Strong evidence that brain structures is determined by epigenetic processes
Perrys theory of neurodevelopment aspects of theory
Molen & Ridderinkhof brain plasticity
The medical model
Pervasiveness may cause behaviours to become problematic
DSM classifications influenced by sociocultural factors
ADHD uncritically accepted as a neurobiological condition
Many demands lead to children being medically treated
Conclusions
Always been biological approaches
Culture is seen as an aspect of the environment that contributes to a greater or lesser
degree in psychological processes, but not as a qualitative determinant of the patterning
of those processes (Miller)
Other theories in later chapters

Document Summary

From darwin to dna: biologically based theories of development. Individual differences, the adaptation of organisms to the environment and a broadening of investigative methodologies. Natural selection missing in developmental psychology. Weak influence of darwinian theory on developmental psychology: phylogeny and ontogeny (differences, methodology, moral values. Researched based on observation, focus on proximate behaviour than ultimate factors. 3 tenets: interspecies comparisons and notion of homology, notion of heritability, adaptation outcomes of evolution. Essence of the approach human is subtenant of genes, selfish gene, homology and hereditary estimates, adaptation and any criticisms in the approach. Criticisms: hereditary estimates problems with this not enough research. Epigenetics interplay between genetic and ecological conditions to determine the phenotype. Reading is a cultural expression of language. Behaviour genetics = a focus on today"s nature/nurture debate. Scarr: genotype-environment correlations rather than gene-environment interactions. Wahlsten importance of the interaction between genes and environment. Too much importance on genetic influences on behaviour (behaviour genetics)