Chapter 22 – The Age of Nation-States
In the mid-19 century, Italy was made up of all independent states that were not united.
- Many Italians feared republican nationalism, because they did not want to be under Austrian rule
In 1860, the Italian peninsula was turned into a nation-state with the help of Camilio Cavour, the prime
minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia in northern Italy.
Cavour believed that a unified Italian state was necessary for economic and social progress.
- He promoted free trade, railway creation, and agricultural improvement to show that Italy was
- He believed an alliance with France (Napoleon III) was their only path to defeatingAustria
March 1861 – Victor Emmanuel II is proclaimed King of Italy.
- This unified had difficulties because of the economic and social discrepancies between north and
south Italy. The south was rural and poor while the north was industrializing.
- Italian politics became corrupt with bribery and favors gaining people seat in the cabinet
Before unification, Germany was just made up of the German Confederation, which was a loose
confederation of 39 states established at the Congress of Vienna.
- At the time, William I was the King of Prussia, and his Prime Minister was Otto von Bismarck.
- Bismarck was against the liberals, and set about uniting Germany to attrac