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Chapter 22

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HIST 1031
Robert Savage

Chapter 22 – The Age of Nation-States Italian Unification: In the mid-19 century, Italy was made up of all independent states that were not united. - Many Italians feared republican nationalism, because they did not want to be under Austrian rule In 1860, the Italian peninsula was turned into a nation-state with the help of Camilio Cavour, the prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia in northern Italy. Cavour believed that a unified Italian state was necessary for economic and social progress. - He promoted free trade, railway creation, and agricultural improvement to show that Italy was economically progressive. - He believed an alliance with France (Napoleon III) was their only path to defeatingAustria March 1861 – Victor Emmanuel II is proclaimed King of Italy. - This unified had difficulties because of the economic and social discrepancies between north and south Italy. The south was rural and poor while the north was industrializing. - Italian politics became corrupt with bribery and favors gaining people seat in the cabinet German Unification: Before unification, Germany was just made up of the German Confederation, which was a loose confederation of 39 states established at the Congress of Vienna. - At the time, William I was the King of Prussia, and his Prime Minister was Otto von Bismarck. - Bismarck was against the liberals, and set about uniting Germany to attrac
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