May be biological, psychological or sociocultural (e. g. poverty) Pairs 1 22 = body and brain development. Genetic factors explain about 50% of variance in personality or cognitive characteristics. Combines classical and operant conditioning to explain of fears. Fear acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through negative reinforcement. Rotter: behavior determined both by reinforcement and expectancy of reinforcement occurring. Exposed to fear situation or object while preventing avoidance. Emphasis on role of thoughts in etiology & maintenance of problems. I should be loved by everyone for everything i do. I should be completely competent, intelligent, and achieving in all i do. Role of causal attributions: pessimistic explanatory style. Characterized by internal, stable, & global attributions for negative events. Internal, unstable, specific attributions e. g. (cid:862)it"s (cid:373)(cid:455) fault, (cid:271)ut it"s (cid:271)e(cid:272)ause i did(cid:374)"t stud(cid:455) hard this ti(cid:373)e(cid:863) Explanations of bad events that are external, temporary & specific. Patient reacts to therapist as if he represented an important figure from childhood.