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Psychology (17)
PSYC 001 (15)
Greg Feist (13)
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 001
Professor
Greg Feist
Semester
Fall

Description
Affects: Moods ● last longer and more diffuse (vague) ○ can last hours, days Emotion ● inherently neither good nor bad ● psychologists study these 3 traits ○ involve subjective feelings ○ physiological changes ○ cognitive beliefs (appraisals) ■ can’t experience emotion w/o this. ■ thought and emotion are simultaneous and complementary ● Short term (usually only lasting a couple minutes) ● specific to particular events ● adaptive responses ○ capture and focus our attention ■ orient us away from harm and towards benefits (e.g. food, sex, etc.) ■ benefits to well-being are experienced as “positive emotions” (happiness, joy, pride, relief) ○ Harms to well-being ■ experienced as “negative emotions” ● we find decay and death disgusting ● anger is when something happens that we don’t want to happen ● sadness is loss ○ Tell us what we should keep doing and what to avoid/stop doing ● Love is emotional, but not an emotion ○ bigger than emotion ○ lots of different kinds ● Social-cultural factors in emotions ○ Display rules in expression ■ e.g. disgust in Japan v. U.S. ● unwritten rules in what is proper to be publicly expressed ○ Situational clues ○ Biology is more important in experiencing emotion ○ Culture is more important in expressing emotion ○ Smiles ■ Show it with your eyes ● fakes = don’t wrinkle eyes ○ Deception in lying ■ Lying is complicated behavior ■ cues ● not just one “lying face” ● Too much body and facial shrugging ● signs of control and concealment ● lots of hesitation in speech; speak slower, more ‘umms’ ● smirking ● incongruous behavior ○ shaking head no slightly while nodding and saying yes ● vocal changes ○ Pitch often changes in lies ● Behavioral signs of emotion that don’t match what someone is saying ○ source of emotion can be confusing ■ is it fear from being caught or an emotional lie they tell ● Eye flutter ■ Misleading cues: ● People tend to put too much weight on verbal info ● Overinterpret ambiguous nonverbal cues ○ (i.e. any signs of nervousness = lying) ● tendency to ignore non-verbal, vocal info ● get fooled by signs of warmth, competence, etc. (smooth talkers) ○ Motivational behaviors, need, drive ■ Motivation: Factors that initiate, maintain, and direct behaviors towards some goal. ● why we do what we do ● every day that we live, we are motivated to survive ○ suicidal people are motivated not to live. ■ Need: State of cellular or bodily deficiency that compels drives ■ Drive: perceived psychological state of tension arising when bodies are deficient of some need ■ i.e. Need: nutrients > Drive: hunger > motivated behavior: eat ○ homeostasis: Body naturally strives to maintain and equilibrium of basic drives and physiological states ■ needs feedback mechanism, like thermostat in your home ● exist in brain ○ direct feedback systems that get signals from body ● once body changes from a “set-point” the control system kicks in to bring it back to set-point ○ i.e. hunger, thirst ■ Motivation ● We want it (psychologically) ■ internal signals for hunger ● role of stomach ○ gastric secretions (rumbling) ○ contractions (contract when hungry) ○ not most important signal ○ Animals still hungry when nerves from stomach to brain are cut ● Satiety = scientific term for being “full” ● Role of glucose (sugars) ○ low glucose (blood sugar) levels = hungry ○ high blood sugar = sated/full ● Insulin (hormone) ○ insulin pumps nutrients (& sugars) into cells ■ works against presence of sugar ■ >out of blood > into cells ○ insulin decreases blood sugar levels (hunger) ○ diabetes = low insulin (high blood sugar) ■ Internal signals for hunger: Brain ● hypothalamus - Dual Center Theory ○ Ventromedial (bottom middle) ■ regulates and send signals that we’re full ○ Hypothalamus (VMH): Satiety ■ lesioning leads to obesity ○ Lateral (side) hypothalamus (LH): Hunger ■ Lesioning leads to weight loss ■ Weight: Maintenance and gain ● Need environment promoting eating ● Set Point Theory ○ Weight is 60-80% determined by genes ○ # & size of fat cells differ b/t people ■ complete necessity ○ Metabolism ■ Rate at which nutrients are converted to energy ■ Body slows energy conversion (metabolism) if you take in less food ■ keeps you at relatively constant weight ■ Metabolism slows w/ age (gain weight) ○ “Ob gene” ■ prevents obesity ■ Mutations in ob gene > obesity ○ 2/3 US adults = overweight ■ (BMI > 25) ○ BMI standards ■ starve < 15 ■ Underweight < 18.4 ■ Ideal 18.5 - 24.9 ■ Overweight = 25 - 29.9 ■ Obese: 30-40 ■ Morbidly obese: > 40 ■ don’t look at just BMi ■ Look at waist & BMI ■ Eating disorders ● Anorexia Nervosa ○ 25% < normal weight ■ i.e. BMI <16 ○ irrational fear of being overweight ■ distorted body image ○ refusal to maintain higher body weight ○ 4% die from disorder ● Bulimia Nervosa ○ binge eating & purging ○ occurs 2x a week ○ self-aware of being abnormal ● Causes ○ Psychological factors ■ low self-esteem ■ high perfectionism ■ orientation of external locus ○ Genetic factors ■ heritability suggests closer genetic relation = more likely people are to share disorder ■ specific genes are not yet located ■ Perceived & ideal weight: gender differences ● men think they’re ideal in similar weight range ○ women think ideal is slightly lower ● Women think ideal is thinnest ○ attractive = more weight ○ Basic & higher need: Sex ■ w/o food, we die ■ w/o sex ● species die ○ we don’t die, but we may be unhappy ■ Very complex ● biological, psychological, emotional, sometimes spiritual ■ sex as instinct, drive, motive ● not technically instinct, but comes close ○ instinct = ■ biologically based ■ everyone has it ○ ^ sex is similar ○ happens during adolescence ■ drive ● we want it (hormonally) (horny) ● testosterone = big component ○ more you do it, more you want it ○ less “ “ less “ ‘ ○ plays role in both men and women in arousal-desire ○ 7th & 8th grade boys studied over 3 years ■ high testosterone = sex at younger age & more frequently ○ 18-27 yr. old men = high testosterone levels during arousal ■ positive correlation b/t testosterone & arousal ○ female undergrads = higher testosterone levels = greater desire = more sexual activity ● biological factors ○ women are most sexually active during ovulation ■ 2 weeks into cycle ○ Limbic system (hypothalamus & pituitary gland) ■ lesions eliminate sexual behavior ■ attraction ● mate preference ○ 37 cultures ○ men chose attraction over everything ■ mostly for short term ○ Women chose status ○ gender differences less
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