nutrition chapters 10,11,12 notes.docx

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Syracuse University
Nutrition Science & Dietetics
NSD 225

Aerobic Zone: when you are exercising at an intensity where your heart rate raises to 60-85% of maximum heart rate. Calculated by multiplying maximum heart rate by 0.6 and 0.85. Max heart rate depends on age and can be estimated by subtracting your age from 220. Aerobic Exercise: endurance exercise that increases heart rate and uses oxygen to provide energy as ATP Aerobic Capacity: maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed by the tissues during exercise. Also called maximal oxygen consumption or VO2 max Aging: the inevitable accumulation of changes associated with and responsible for an ever- increasing susceptibility to disease and death Alcohol: leading cause of preventable birth defects Alcoholic Hepatitis: inflammation of the liver caused by alcohol consumption Alzheimer’s Disease: a disease that results in a relentless and irreversible loss of mental function Anabolic Steroids: synthetic fat-soluble hormones that mimic testosterone and are used to increase muscle strength and mass Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: condition characterized by a short attention span and a high level of activity, excitability, and distractibility Arthritis: a disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, pain, and sometimes changes in structure Beta-Carotene: dietary antioxidant Binge Drinking: a pattern of drinking that brings a person’s blood alcohol concentration to 0.08 gram percent (mg/100mL) or above Body Fat: women: 21-32% of total weight. Men: 8-19% Caffeine: associated with increased risk of miscarriage or low birth weight. Calcium Needs: fetus accumulates 30g during 3 trimester but RDAis not increased because calcium absorption doubles. RDAfor toddlers: 700 mg/day and 1000mg/day for young children. RDAfor age 9-18: 1300mg/day Cardiorespiratory Endurance: efficiency with which the body delivers to cells the oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from cells Carb, Fat, and Protein Needs: 6-10g of carb/kg of body weight per day recommended for athletes. 20-35% of energy is fat. 15-20% of calories from protein (369) Carbohydrate Loading: regimen designed to increase muscle glycogen stores beyond their usual level (373) Carbohydrate Needs: RDAincreased by 45g, to 175g/day Chronic Disease: exercise can reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and bone and joint disorders Cirrhosis: chronic and irreversible liver disease characterized by loss of functioning liver cells and accumulation of fibrous connective tissue Components of Fitness: endurance, strength, flexibility, body composition Colostrum: the first milk, produced by the breast late in pregnancy and for up to a week after delivery. Compared to mature milk, it contains more water, protein, immune factors, minerals, and vitamins and less fat Creatine: one of the most popular ergogenic supplements. Nitrogen-containing. Found primarily in muscle, where it is used to make creatine phosphate Creatine Phosphate: a compound stored in muscle that can be broken down quickly to makeATP Crib Death: unexplained death of an infant, usually during sleep Dementia: a deterioration of mental state that results in impaired memory, thinking, and/or judgment DETERMINE: disease, eating poorly, tooth loss, economic hardship, reduced social support, multiple medicines, involuntary weight loss or gain, needs assistance in self-café, elder above age 80 (451) Eclampsia: convulsions or seizures during or immediately after pregnancy. Untreated, it can lead to coma or death Edema: expansion in blood volume necessary to nourish the fetus often causes an accumulation of extracellular fluid in the tissues. Does not increase medical risks unless accompanied by rise in blood pressure Embryo: developing human from two through eight weeks after fertilization Embryonic Stage of Development: 2-8 weeks after fertziliation, cells differentiate and arrange themselves in the proper locations to form the major organ systems. Energy Needs: during second and third trimester, an additional 340 and 452 calories/day recommended, amount of energy expended for an activity depends on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity and the weight of the exerciser Endorphins: compounds that cause a natural euphoria and reduce the perception of pain under certain stressful conditions ErgogenicAid: substance, an appliance, or procedure that improves athletic performance Ethanol: the alcohol in alcoholic beverages; it is produced by yeast fermentation of sugar Fatty Liver: accumulation of fat in liver cells Fatigue: inability to continue an activity at an optimal level Failure to Thrive: inability of a child’s growth to keep up with normal growth curves FemaleAthlete Triad: energy restriction, changes in hormone levels that affect menstrual cycle, and disturbances in bone formation and breakdown that can lead to osteoporosis Fertilization: the union of a sperm and an egg Fetal Stage of Development: begins at 9 weeks after fertilization and contuse until birth. The fetus grows, and internal and external body structure continue to develop FetalAlcohol Syndrome: characteristic group of physical and mental abnormalities in an infant resulting from maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy FetalAlcohol Spectrum Disorders: used to refer to all the physical and behavioral disorders or conditions and functional or mental impairments linked to prenatal alcohol exposure Fetus: developing human from the ninth week after fertilization to birth Fitness: set of attributes related to the ability to perform routine physical activities without undue fatigue Flexibility: determines range of motion- how far you can bend and stretch muscles and ligaments. Fluid Needs: 3 L/day for pregnant women Folate: needed for synthesis of DNAand cell division. 400 ug daily of synthetic folic acid for women who may become pregnant. RDA600ug/day for pregnant women FolicAcid: promoted for aerobic exercise. Involved in transport of oxygen to exercising muscles. Needed for energy metabolism Food Strike Hemolysis: breaking of red blood cells due to contraction of large muscles or impact in events such as running (377) th Gestational Hypertension: abnormal rise in blood pressure that occurs after 20 week of pregnancy Gestational Diabetes: condition characterized by high blood glucose levels that develop during pregnancy Glycogen Super-Compensation: regimen designed to increase muscle glycogen stores beyond their usual level (373) Heart-Related Illnesses: conditions, including heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, that can occur due to an unfavorable combination of exercise, hydration status, and climatic conditions Heat Cramps: involuntary muscle spasms that occur during or after intense exercise, usually in the muscles involved in the exercise. Form of heart-related illness caused by imbalance of electrolytes at the muscle cell membranes. Occur when water and salt are lost during extended exercise Heat Exhaustion: occurs when water loss causes blood volume to decrease so much that it is not possible both to cool the body and to deliver oxygen to active muscles. Form of heat-related illness characterized by rapid weak
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