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Chapter 5

Biology I Chapter 5 NOTES

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BSC 2010C
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Ch. 5 Wednesday, September 25, 2013 5:09 PM Macromolecules: 4 main classes of molecules -Carbohydrates: CHO compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body Carbs: building blocks; polymers of sugars -Lipids: CHO (created by dehydration synthesis) 3 largest: Fats (glycerol and fatty acids), Phospholipids (most abundant! fatty acid & phosphate group), Steroids, (4 hydrocarbon rings), Waxes carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; hydrophobic most made of fatty acids (unbranched carbon chains) steroids→ lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four .used rings -Proteins: CHON (also called polypeptides) contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids (building blocks of proteins) Amino acids: non polar, polar, acidic, basic (2 groups - carboxyl and animo) -Nucleic Acids: CHONP containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus Basic structure of genes (DNA and RNA) Stores and transmits heredity info Subunit: nucleotides (which makes up DNA) made of phosphate, pentose, nitrogenous base 2 types of nitrogenous bases in nucleotides: -purine: adenine and guanine -pyrimidine CUT: cytosine, thymine, uracil Ex: ATP (adenosine, 3 phosphates) 3 types of RNA (made of ribose): mRNA- messenger
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