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Chapter 16&17

COMPLETE Honors General Biology CHAPTER 16 & 17 Notes -- 4.0ed this course

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Department
Biology
Course
BSC 2010C
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
BSC 2010C­­0001  Ch. 16 and 17  Many basics of molecular biology determined using viruses that infect bacteria  Viruses composed of protein coat and internal genetic material (DNA or RNA)  Not living­no cell structure, no metabolism, cannot self­replicate  Bacterial viruses called bacteriophages  Logical choice for experiments  DNA structure  Each polymer contains four nucleotides named for the nitrogenous bases  DNA • Thymine­T, cytosine­C, adenine­A, and guanine­G  RNA • Uracil­U replaces T  DNA is double­stranded helix  Watson­Crick model based on observations from many sources • Chemical structure of bases • X­ray crystallographs • Chemical analysis of DNA ♦ A=T and G=C  Ratios of A+T and G+C  Major groove—Large indentation in helix   Meselson and Stahl demonstrated that DNA replication is semi­conservative,  confirming the Watson­Crick model   Replication initiated at special sites called origins of replication  Helicase breaks open hydrogen bonds  Single stranded binding proteins then tack the bubble down  Involves complex of molecules including, DNA polymerase which adds bases and  proof reads  Despite speed (50­500 bases/sec), replication is accurate­less than 1  mistake/billion nucleotides  Enzymes proofread DNA during replication and repair damage in existing DNA  Mismatch repair ­ enzymes repair errors in base pairing during replication  Excision repair ­ enzymes repair damage caused by physical and chemical agents  3’ end of leading strand has potential to get shorter with repeated replication  Solved by two mechanisms  Telomeres ­ non­coding repeated DNA sequences at ends of linear molecules  Telomerases – enzyme that catalyzes lengthening of telomeres  Shortening of telomeres may represent cell life ­ limiting factor  DNA Polymerase II is the proof reading enzyme in bacteria  Gene Expression/Transcription and Translation (CH 17) 1 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]  Genotype expressed as proteins­basis of phenotypic traits  One gene­one polypeptide hypothesis  Flow of information is from DNA to RNA (transcription) to polypeptide  (translation)  Genetic information written as codons and translated into amino acids   In two stages:  Transcription of DNA in nucleus into mRNA (micro RNA is a pre­curser of  mRNA)  Translation of mRNA into protein (ami
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