NSCI430 Chapter Notes - Chapter 47: Posterior Pituitary, Ventral Posterior Nucleus, Periaqueductal Gray

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NSCI430 Integrative Neuroscience II
Chapter 47 (p. 1066-76)
A. Autonomic behavior and divisions
a. Sympathetic arousal, defense, escape (fight or flight)
b. Parasympathetic eating and procreation
c. The two work together
i. EX: peristalsis, micturition reflex, baroreceptor reflex
B. Central autonomic network in the hypothalamus
a. General visceral sensory info: cranial nerves IX and I solitary tract spinal
cord
i. Nucleus of solitary tract
1. Projects to brain stem and spinal cord to control autonomic reflex
a. EX: regulate vagal motor control of the heart & GI tract
2. Ascending projections integrate autonomic with neuroendocrine
and behavioral responses
b. Periaqueductal gray: helps redirect blood flow from the digestive system to the
hind limbs enhances running
c. Parvicellular projections to viscerosensory & gustatory areas relay info about
hunger, abdominal fullness, dry throat, and holding breath
d. Splanchnic nerves ventral posterior nucleus which receives somatosensory info
e. Infralimbic & prelimbic areas
i. EX: contractions of the stomach and changes in blood pressure
C. Hypothalamus integrates autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses
a. If hypothalamus stays intact, animals can eat, drink, bear offspring, defend
themselves, and maintain homeostasis
D. Magnocellular Neuroendocrine Neurons control the pituitary gland directly
a. Synthesize and secrete oxytocin and vasopressin (hormones that control blood
pressure, water balance, uterine smooth muscle, and milk release)
E. Parvicellular neuroendocrine neurons control the pituitary gland indirectly
a. Classes of hypothalamic peptide hormones that control pituitary hormone
secretion
i. Releasing hormones & release-inhibiting hormones
ii. Prolactin: the only predominantly inhibitory control
iii. CRH neurons = final common pathway for centrally mediated stress
responses
F. Six vital functions
a. Blood pressure and electrolyte composition
b. Energy metabolism
c. Reproductive behavior
d. Body temperature
e. Defensive behavior
f. Sleep-wake cycle
G. Hormones of the posterior pituitary gland
a. Vasopressin & oxytocin
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