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BIOL1F25 Thursday March 21.doc

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Adonis Skandalis

Thursday March 21st Lecture At some point, our migration routes -- Neanderthal genes 'survive in us' Evaluating Evolutionary Relationships • Primate evolution from 30 million years to present • How do you access this diagram of relationships? • Classification of life • Systematics, linguistics, how do you systematically determine the evolutionary relationships? • Taxon/a -- what is it? • Phylogeny, next lecture • Homology • Exploration of primates, chapter 10 Phylogenetic "trees" • Evolutionary relationships represented of trees. There is a trunk and it's branching off, tree analogy • Relationships appear to have a branching pattern • What is the nature of the branching pattern? Classification of Life • How should we classify the incredible diversity of life? • Linnaeus proposed a classification system, based on the similarity of traits of organisms using a hierarchical approach • What is a similarity and what is a trait? e.g. The ability to fly • Network of traits that we define • What was the trait used in the discovery of mitochondrial Eve? Mitochondrial DNA o What kind of trait is this? • DNA sequence is a very powerful way to determine similarities, if they could they would only use DNA o One problem: very good in classifying life that is living, more problematic for classifying life that is extinct o E.g. Dinosaur DNA, our ability to clone species that have gone extinct -- first candidate is the mammoth • We are very good at making things extinct, how would it be like to actually bring them back? Science meddling in nature  Effort to preserve DNA of organisms that might be killed • Plants • Antibiotics, become vulnerable if you put all your eggs in one basket • Tomato species going extinct, one species of corn • Other traits than DNA • Traits can be any observable characteristics of organisms such as anatomical features or genetic DNA sequences, e.g. shape of forehead or jaw, four legs, fin o Used to access evolutionary relationships o Why are traits similar? Because these traits were inherited by a common ancestor • E.g. why we look so similar to chimpanzees o The more similar traits you have, the closer you're related to an organism o One trait is not good enough, you have to use several • In the 18th century, Carolus Linnaeus proposed the hi
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