Thursday March 21st Lecture
At some point, our migration routes -- Neanderthal genes 'survive in us'
Evaluating Evolutionary Relationships
• Primate evolution from 30 million years to present
• How do you access this diagram of relationships?
• Classification of life
• Systematics, linguistics, how do you systematically determine the
• Taxon/a -- what is it?
• Phylogeny, next lecture
• Exploration of primates, chapter 10
• Evolutionary relationships represented of trees. There is a trunk and it's
branching off, tree analogy
• Relationships appear to have a branching pattern
• What is the nature of the branching pattern?
Classification of Life
• How should we classify the incredible diversity of life?
• Linnaeus proposed a classification system, based on the similarity of traits of
organisms using a hierarchical approach
• What is a similarity and what is a trait? e.g. The ability to fly
• Network of traits that we define
• What was the trait used in the discovery of mitochondrial Eve? Mitochondrial
o What kind of trait is this?
• DNA sequence is a very powerful way to determine similarities, if they could
they would only use DNA
o One problem: very good in classifying life that is living, more
problematic for classifying life that is extinct
o E.g. Dinosaur DNA, our ability to clone species that have gone extinct
-- first candidate is the mammoth
• We are very good at making things extinct, how would it be like
to actually bring them back? Science meddling in nature
Effort to preserve DNA of organisms that might be killed
• Antibiotics, become vulnerable if you put all
your eggs in one basket
• Tomato species going extinct, one species of
• Other traits than DNA
• Traits can be any observable characteristics of organisms such as anatomical
features or genetic DNA sequences, e.g. shape of forehead or jaw, four legs, fin
o Used to access evolutionary relationships
o Why are traits similar? Because these traits were inherited by a
• E.g. why we look so similar to chimpanzees o The more similar traits you have, the closer you're related to an
o One trait is not good enough, you have to use several
• In the 18th century, Carolus Linnaeus proposed the hi