BIOL 2P03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Cytoskeleton, Light-Independent Reactions, Exocytosis

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Lecture 2 Functional Anatomy of the Eukaryotic Cell - Organelles and major
structures
Organelle
Denition: a membrane enclosed intracellular structure that is specialized for
carrying out a specic function.
Examples: nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts (plants), endoplasmic
reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes
The nucleus
DNA
organized into chromosomes (eukaryotes)
packaged with histones into chromatin
Site of genes, replicative and transcriptional polymerases, transcription factors,
co-transcriptional regulators, and other proteins involved in nucleotide
metabolism.
Function is to store (and maintain the integrity of) information and to coordinate
the use of that information to produce proteins, ribosomes, miRNAs needed to
build and maintain the cell.
Mitochondria
- ATP synthesis from ADP (ATP synthase); followed by ATP export (exchange for
ADP) into the cytosol
- Storage of intracellular calcium
- Roles in synthesis of some hormones, some nucleotides, urea cycle
- Sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which regulates some
cellular functions
Chloroplasts (plants)
-Photosynthesis (producing ATP and NADH)
-Calvin cycle (producing 3-carbon units used to make sugars)
Endoplasmic reticulum
-A tubular membrane system often partly surrounding the nucleus
-Functions:
-Rough ER – making proteins, including folding and post-translational
modications
-Smooth ER – making membranes and other lipids, storing calcium
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