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Lecture 2 Functional Anatomy of the Eukaryotic Cell - Organelles and major
Denition: a membrane enclosed intracellular structure that is specialized for
carrying out a specic function.
Examples: nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts (plants), endoplasmic
reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes
organized into chromosomes (eukaryotes)
packaged with histones into chromatin
Site of genes, replicative and transcriptional polymerases, transcription factors,
co-transcriptional regulators, and other proteins involved in nucleotide
Function is to store (and maintain the integrity of) information and to coordinate
the use of that information to produce proteins, ribosomes, miRNAs needed to
build and maintain the cell.
- ATP synthesis from ADP (ATP synthase); followed by ATP export (exchange for
ADP) into the cytosol
- Storage of intracellular calcium
- Roles in synthesis of some hormones, some nucleotides, urea cycle
- Sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which regulates some
-Photosynthesis (producing ATP and NADH)
-Calvin cycle (producing 3-carbon units used to make sugars)
-A tubular membrane system often partly surrounding the nucleus
-Rough ER – making proteins, including folding and post-translational
-Smooth ER – making membranes and other lipids, storing calcium