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Lecture 1

BIOL 2P98 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Cell Membrane, Microbiology, Cytoplasm

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Mac Neil Lori

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September 9th, 2015
Chapter 1: Microorganisms and Microbiology
oOrganisms too small to be seen clearly by the unaided eye
o1mm or less in diameter
oConsists of a single cell or cell cluster, or a virus
oStudy of microbes and their interactions with other living organisms
oRevolves two interconnected themes:
oUnderstanding the nature and functioning of the microbial world
Basic biological sciences
Uses microbial cells to understand fundamental process of life
oApplying our understanding of the microbial world for the bene&t of
humankind and planet Earth
Applied biological science
At the forefront of medicine, agriculture and industry
Common elements of both cell types
oA cytoplasmic membrane that separates the inside of the cell from the
oCytoplasm containing an aqueous mixture of macromolecules, small
organic molecules and ions
oMacromolecules – carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
oRibosomes for protein synthesis
oMost microorganisms contain a cell wall that provides structural strength
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
oBacteria and Archaea
oSmaller in size (~0.4 – 10 µM)
oNo internal membranes
oGenome is usually a single closed
circular chromosome
oAggregates in the cell to form a
mass called a nucleoid
oMay contain additional small
circles of DNA called plasmids
oMicroorganisms in Domain
include protists and
oLarger in size (~10 – 100 µM)
oContain membrane-bound
oGenome organized into linear
oContained in a membrane-
enclosed nucleus
oGenome is typically larger
than prokaryotes
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