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Lecture 10

CHYS 2P10 lecture 10 and 11.docx

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Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Anthony Volk

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CHYS 2P10 December 9 2013: 118 MC questions (Definitions and application are important) EXAM PREP: Notes on second half of the material: Lecture 10/11 combined readings and lecture notes: (peers/aggression) - Group association theory: (Judith Harris) - Children’s personalities are shaped by their interactions with their peers no through their parents - Peer groups: involve interactions, sense of belonging, and sharing similar interests between others - Clique: small peer group that kids join voluntarily with similar interests in an activity - Ex: cheerleading squad or sports teams - Begins around ages 12-14 - Popularity: likability (how much others like you) - Linked to personal characteristics (how a person looks) - As well as having good social skills and SES level (rich over poor) - Implicit association: how fast people make decisions - Prosocial behaviours: benefits others (choices you make) - Antisocial behaviours: one’s own interests that only benefits themselves at the expense of others - Ex: hitting someone else, lying, fibbing, stealing, etc - Altruism: doing something for another, provides more costs then benefits to yourself - Ex: putting someone else first before yourself - William Hamilton’s theory: people’s social behaviours will vary according to genetic relatedness among interactions - Ex: Interactions and how you say things to and between friends/parents=different - Ex: individuals who are more cooperative to those who are closely related to them - Reciprocal Altruism: idea that individuals will cooperate with them and whom they will i interact with in the future - Relationships: interactions between two or more people that occur over an extended period of time - Friendships: relationships between peers that have positive fellings towards one another - 4 stages of friendships: - 1. Stage 1 (preschool) (3-5) - Kids participate in activities that are shared - 2. Stage 2 (age 5-7) - Friends are easily made with similar interests - 3. Stage 3 (age 7-12) - Friends are loyal to one another and show similar interests and attractions - 4. Stage 4 (age 12+) - Friends show empathy towards one another and intimate communication/maturity - Children can be grouped into 5 categories: - 1. Popular (liked) - 2. Rejected (unliked) - 3. Neglected (invisible/nobodies) - 4. Controversial (undecided liked and unliked) - 5. Average status (average people with likes and dislikes) - Children’s temperament can affect how parents and peers treat them, with different kids often find it hard to establish friends with other kids - Also increases favouritism and discrimination - Martin Hoffman: stated that feelings of empathy and kids ability to express them can affect their Prosocial behaviours through 4 main stages of empathy: - Video watched in class on kids watching puppet shows on good and bad behaviours (shows empathy=innate trait) - Shows that young kids start out as selfish and become more giving as they get older - 4 stages of empathy are: - 1. Global empathy (0-1 years old) - Infants distress (feel) from witnessing it from others - 2. Egocentric empathy (1-2years old) - Feeling distressed individually - 3. Veridical empathetic distress (2-10 years old) - Feel empathy for someone else’s feelings - 4. Empathy for another’s life conditions (11+) - Feel empathy for a group of people - Ex: child abuse around the world - Aggression: behaviour that causes harm to others, used to obt
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