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Lecture 4

Week 4 Invasion of the New World

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Tami Friedman

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Invasion of the New World (Week 4, October 1 , 2013) European Invasion: The Vikings. Columbus and the Spanish Invasion. Cortes and the Invasion of the Mainland. The Spanish defeat of the Inca Empire. The Keys to Spanish Success. The Viking Invasion: 982 C.E. Erik The Red inhabits Greenland. 1014 C.E. colony of Vinland founded. Relations between Vikings and “Skrellings” based upon trade but soon becomes violent. Abandonment of Viking settlement due to hostilities with natives leads to further isolation. Iceland to Greenland to Newfoundland. Trade between natives and Vikings relationship based on trade itself, limited trade, relationship deteriorates. Columbus and the Spanish Invasion: Rise of Portugal to prominence from riches ofAfrican trade brings about rise of interest in exploration to find a quicker sea route to the Orient. Christopher Columbus convinces King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella that sailing due west will lead to the Orient faster than the circuitous African route (3 ships). Columbus departs on August 3 , 1492 expecting a few weeks at sea, does not spot land until October 2 , 1492. Lands in the Caribbean Islands, home to the Carib andArawak tribes - Columbus, seeing dark skinned peoples, called them Indians in the mistaken belief that he has landed off the coast of India. He thought he had reached his destination. Columbus’ship was “Santa Maria”. Spanish Colony: Engages in trade with local natives, who offer trinkets of gold. Columbus finds the natives friendly, but sees them as heathens, and suitable as slaves. Columbus returns to Spain and reports of the discovery of the New World, which he claims for the Spanish crown. King Ferdinand orders Columbus to return with 17 ships in 1493, creating the first permanent Spanish settlement on the island named Hispaniola. Spaniards build a colony based upon the forced labour of the native inhabitants who are given to the landowners to work on the land and search for gold. Encomienda slavery system. Ethnocentrism, Eurocentrism, didn’t practice Catholicism. Hispaniola colony in present day Dominican Republic and Haiti. Cortes and the Invasion of the Mainland: Colony on Hispaniola does not find any source of gold, but hears of cities of gold to the west from which traders bring their trinkets. Massive depopulation of native peoples as a result of introducing European diseases and violence. Leads to Hernan Cortes to lead an expedition of 600 men from Hispaniola, which lands in present day Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1519. Aztec leader, Moctezuma, is informed by coastal tribute collectors of the arrival of strange white bearded men, who came on large floating islands - leads him to believe that Cortes is Quetzalcotatl. Quetzalcotatl was dethroned, and was said to come back as a white-skinned, bearded man for revenge. Cortes’Strategy: Cortes, through interpreters, quickly becomes aware of the resentment throughout theAztec empire for tribute collection and human sacrifice, therefore he ordersAztec tax collectors arrested (promises to help lead dissatisfied tribes in revolt against Moctezuma, while at the same time promising Moctezuma that he will release the tax collectors as a symbol of his good faith). As his men move inland, they are offered up tribute in the form of gold, which Cortes immediately sends back to Spain to gain royal favour for his a
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