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Lecture 8

History of the Modern Middle East - Lecture Eight.docx

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Behnaz Mirzai

HIST 2P72 1 5 March 2013 History of the Modern Middle East: Lecture Eight Arab Nationalism Lecture Outline  Arab identity  Arabic  Islamic  Arab nationalism  Pan-Arabism and Obstacles to the Regional Integration of the Arab World  Geographical factors  Historical factors  National integration problems  Political differences  Economic variations  Three Stages of Nationalism: 1. Early Arab Nationalism and the Spread of the idea of Arab Nationalism  Education  Christian Arab nationalism  Media  Arab political societies 2. Arab Nationalism after WWI  Revolt of the Hashimite family 3. Arab Nationalism Today Arab Identity Arabic Language  Language binds all Arabs together  An Arab is any native who speaks Arabic  Arabic is the world’s fifth most commonly spoken language  Geographically, literate Arabs from Morocco through to Oman can all read the same newspaper Islam Religion  Religion is one of the most important elements which unites the Arabs  Islam is an integral component of Arabism, shaping the cultural identity of Arabs Arab Nationalism  Arab nationalism differs from other Middle-Eastern nationalism because of the immense geographical span of territory which is inhabited by the Arabs  There are about twenty countries which consider themselves as Arab  They have their own government, flag, and currency Pan-Arabism  Pan-Arabism is the belief that the Arabs could overcome the artificial boundaries which had separated them in order to create a single political community and common government  The Arab regimes used Arabism for gaining independence, winning local support, enhancing their own legitimacy, and protecting themselves from the colonial powers  In March of 1945, the League of Arab States was established  Headquarters were in Cairo, Egypt  Its members were seven Arab states, including Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Trans-Jordan, Yemen, Syria, and Lebanon  This league was inspired by the doctrine of Pan-Arab unity Pan-Arabism and Obstacles to the Regional Integration of the Arab World Geographical Factors  Settlement patterns of the Arabs were based on water availability  Most regions in the Middle East have little agricultural cultivation  Transportation and communication was also central in the vast region of the Arab world Historical Factors  Arab countries had different historical experiences  For example, Algeria and Libya experienced large-scale colonization by European settlers  Yemen and Saudi Arabia had limited treaty relationships with a colonial power  Egypt, Lebanon, and Syria experienced substantial Western capitalist penetration, resulting in economic transformation National Integration Problems  Linguistic and religious minorities in certain countries did not seek unification  Some of these groups include Christians in Lebanon, the Coptic Christian minority in Egypt Political Differences  Political disunity exists in the Arab world  The Arab world is divided into traditional capitalist and Western-oriented monarchical regimes  Political instability impeded regional integration Economic Variation  Arab countries differ enormously in their population size, resource endowment, economic structure, labour force, trade patterns, and living standards  For example, the economy of Algeria, Iraq, and Morocco depends on raw material exports of oil or gas  Yemen and Somalia are small in oil production in terms of distribution HIST 2P72 3 5 March 2013 Early Arab Nationalism  It is difficult to pinpoint the birth of genuine Arab nationalism th  Up to the early 20 century, the term “Arab” referred to the Bedouins and Nomads of Arabia  For centuries, Muslim Arabs left as Ottoman citizens  Arabic was the language of religion and Turkish was the language of government and politics  The idea of reviving a culture using Arabic developed gradually among the upper-class Ottomans who were content with the European ideologies  The majority of Arab people like peasants, artisans, and nomads were not affected by cultural and political nationalism  Early Arab nationalism was in idealistic movement, limited in its goals to reform within the Ottoman empire Education  Arab nationalism and cultural homogeneity were emphasized through the works
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