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Lecture 5

WGST 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Trade Union, Global Gender Gap Report, Marilyn Waring


Department
Women's and Gender Studies
Course Code
WGST 1F90
Professor
Jenny Janke
Lecture
5

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WGST 1F90 Women and Paid Labour February 10, 2016
Page1
Key Terms
1. Three central life-shaping processes.
2. Time Crunch (Gazzo, 2010).
3. Labour force segregation.
4. Instrumental care work.
5. Affective care work.
6. Vertical segregation.
7. Horizontal segregation.
8. Wage gap.
9. Explained and unexplained of the wage gap.
10. Pay Equity.
11. Proactive Pay Equity.
Questions to Ponder....
1. Is there any type of work you will not do? Why?
2. How will/do you balance paid work, unpaid work and demands of family/personal relationships?
3. If planning for a domestic relationship, what role do you expect your partner to take/have? Your role?
4. How will/do you communicate this division of labour?
5. Childcare work: who will do this? How will this division take place?
Introduction:
1. Women have always worked; done a wide variety of paid laborskilled and unskilled.
2. Women dominate unpaid labour; often work which goes unnoticed; does not count economically & in social
policy.
3. Statistics Canada recently reported that men are increasingly participating in the unpaid household labor;
women still report feeling more ‘time stressed’ than their male counterparts.
4. Gazzo (2010) refers to this as being ‘time crunched.’
5. Be aware of visible and invisible forms of work.
6. From the 1950’s to the 1970’s the Canadian economy was buoyant.
7. Women were pulled into the labour market by expanding civil service.
8. Lasted about 25 years with a recession in the early 1980’s and a second in the 1990s.
9. Real incomes have declined, and the labor market has become less stable.
10. Jobs for men and women are less secure, and more jobs are temporary or part time.
Shaping Life Processes:
1. Three central processes shape our life experiences: production, reproduction, and distribution.
2. Production: paid work, the security of our position, saving for the future, our relationship to the economy.

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WGST 1F90 Women and Paid Labour February 10, 2016
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3. Production refers to care work, volunteerism, and domestic labourinvisible and undervalued.
4. Reproduction: social reproduction of dependents children.
5. Reproductive work also includes: producing a healthy, educated population
6. Distribution: how services are rendered and distributed.
7. Who does what for whom? How are government services provided? Who receives which services?
8. Production work has been associated with the public realm/ reproductive work with the private realm; invisible.
9. We have over valued productive at the expense of unpaid work.
10. Feminists have refused the idea that these two realms public & private are entirely separate.
11. Example: many women ‘chose’ to engage in part time work in the service sector as a way to balance family
responsibilities. Yet, this work is underpaid, few benefits, precarious labour.
12. The Feminization of Poverty is due to systemic discrimination.
Marilyn Waring: Sex, Lies and Global Politics (1995)....
1. What has been the value of women’s work economically and politically?
- Not valued
- When older, seen as a burden
2. Why are time use surveys important when assessing women’s work?
- Some women work 16 18 hour days unpaid everyday as leisure
- Women: 5 hours cooking and food
- To identify inefficiencies
3. What are the larger (macro) concerns about the lack of value of women’s unpaid work?
- Being invisible while in prime working period
- It would take EVERYBODY to change the way things are
Two Forms of Care Work:
1. Care work is raced, gendered and classed. Involves paid and unpaid work.
2. The care work we provide has to do with many aspects of our status.
3. Statistics Canada indicates that the higher a woman’s income the less likely she is to spend significant hours in a day
on housework.
4. Time Use Surveys Indicate: women are more likely than men in nearly all economic classes, to engage in care work.
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WGST 1F90 Women and Paid Labour February 10, 2016
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5. Racialized’ women are more likely to be involved in paid care work (Mandell, et al., 2010: 209).
6. Racialized women continue to perform a great deal of paid care work (psw, nursing aides, au pairs, nannies, etc).
7. This role of being closely associated with care work does not dissipate as women age.
8.Women continue to preform the majority of instrumental care duties: housework, meal preparation, etc.
9. Women continue to perform the majority of affective tasks: kinship work (ex. writing and sending birthday cards,
gifts), undertaking the psychological responsibilities for others, phone calls, etc.
10. Women spend, on average, 35 years of their life taking care of others.
Women’s Experiences with Paid Labor
1. The entry of large numbers of women into the PLF has been one of the dominant social trends in Canada.
2. In 2006, 58% of all women aged 15 and over had jobs & accounted for 47% of the employed workforce in 2006,
up from 37% in 1976.
3. Race plays a significant role when examining women’s relationship to the paid labor force. Gender/race are
corners of oppression.
4. Canadian-born Aboriginal women are less likely to be employed, earn less for their paid work and thus are more
likely to experience low income than white women.
5. Racialized women are over represented in low-paying sectors and non-standard occupations.
Women, Children, and Paid Labor
1. Women’s labor force participation experiences are distinctly related to their mothering and provisions of
childcare.
2. In 2006, 73% of all women with children less than age 16 living at home were part of the employed workforce,
up from 39% in 1976.
3. Age of child significant: women with pre-school-aged children are less likely than those with school-aged
children to be employed.
4. Female lone parents are less likely than mothers in two-parent families to be employed.
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