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Lecture 2

Part 1: Lecture 2 Notes

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Carleton University
PSYC 2700
Chris Herdman

LECTURE #2 OUTLINE 1. Review Multi-Store Model of Memory 2. Basics of Visual Perception 3. Sensory Memory (Textbook Chapter #3) a. Encoding b. Duration c. Capacity d. Type of Code 4. Erasure of Sensory Memory (SM) 5. Summary I. MULTI-STORE MODEL Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) (Textbook page 43) 3 Memory (information processing) structures: - Sensory Memory (Registers) - Short-term Store - Long-term Store My notes: Environmental input: get info from environment and comes in from the sensory registers. Gets passed onto the next memory system (short-term store/working memory), where it is temporarily stored, then it gets transferred into long-term store which is the last memory system. A lot of memory is focused on vision. Memory goes through these 3 systems in order. How to differentiate the Stores: - Encoding - Duration (how long the memory is stored) - Capacity (how big the storage is) - Type of Code(s) (where the memory is stored) II. BASICS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION (Textbook pages 75-81) Sensation - Reception of stimulation from environment - Initial encoding into nervous system Gather and receive information from the environment Perception - Process of interpreting sensory information Follows sensation. Process by which we do some interpretation of the sensation system (understanding at a conscious level); impose some type of coding Sensory Structure (Fig. 3.1, page 77) - Light waves projected onto retina o Rods, cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells  Rods/cones back layer of neurons  1 to be stimulated by light waves o Neural firing pattern from rod/cones to bipolar cells, and then to ganglion cells  Axons of ganglion cells form bundle calls optic nerve  Nerve projects back to send neural message to visual cortex in occipital lobe My notes: 1 degree= thumbs width Fovea area of the eye- colour vision Rods- black, white and grey Cones- colour Energy waves go all the way to the back of the retina and activate the rods and cones; project into the next layer of cells (bipolar cells) Compression - Only fraction of light waves reaches retina - 120M rods, 7M cones, only 1M ganglion ○ Some cones have own bipolar ○ But, many rods converge onto 1 bipolar ○ Convergence especially in 20+ degrees (don’t need a lot of detail in your peripheral; just need movement) How Is Information Gathered? - Series of fixation-saccade cycles - Saccades o Eyes move in jerky patterns o Not smooth continuous o Variable: 25ms-175ms o Nothing “seen” during saccade - Fixations o Eyes pause to foveate and take in information o Fovea is where highest resolution in eye My notes: Fixation-Saccade cycles: moving eyes around, in certain ways and in certain control; moving eyes in a jittery motion Saccades: when your eyes are moving but nothing comes in- just a blur Fixations: when eyes stop moving and look at or watch something, still allowing them to pick up information III. SENSORY MEMORY (Also known as Sensory Registers) - Neural activation in retina is brief o Terminates with external stimulation
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