Lecture 5 Oct. 7 Cognitive Psychology
• Review Multi-Store Model of Memory
I. Atkinson and Shiffrin- 3 memories (multi-store model of memory):
i) Sensory Memory: Visual, auditory and haptic stimulation
ii) Short-term Store: temporary working memory. Controls the following
d) retrieval strategies
iii) Long-term Store: Permanent memory store. Takes important info from the
short term store.
II. Korsakoff patients: Patients who suffer from neuron destruction from excessive
alcohol intake with poor nutrition. They have good memory of past events but
have trouble forming new ones, aka. Anterograde amnesia.
III. Anterograde vs. Retrograde Amnesia: Anterograde amnesia means that you
cannot form new memories, but can remember old ones. Retrograde means you
cannot remember any events that occurred prior to pathology.
IV. The man who mistook his wife for a hat (jimmy D): Jimmy was born in the
1920s. He was a typical Korsakoff patient. He was in the navy from age 17 to
about age 45. He was good at his job and naturally good at math and science- he
was a Morse code expert.
He showed up at a hospital years after being discharged from the navy confused
and disoriented. He was placed in a care home where he received poor nutrition.
He seemed apathetic when he was sitting around, but when he was engaged he
seemed quite alert and interested. He was in overall good health, and his short
term memory seemed ok. Jimmy was still good at math, as long as there were
not too many steps. When asked the date, Jimmy still though he was in the
1940s. • How to Differentiate the Stores: We differentiate the structures based on size, how info
gets in, how it is stored.
A) STS (short term store) Encoding: Information enters this store via the senses.
Selective attention helps us select info from short term memory to enter the short
B) STS Duration: Relatively small.
i) Peterson & Peterson 2 Phase Study: In phase 1, People were given 3
constantans (CCC), followed by a delay of 0-15 seconds. After the delay,
when asked to recall the letters, people remembered them 100% of the time.
In phase 2, the same thing was done except people were given an
intervening task during the delay (counting backwards). People were not able
to remember as easily.
C) STS Codes: Basic, non-semantic, non-linguistic. Deals with basic features such as