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Lecture

October 29th, 2012.docx

2 Pages
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Department
Neuroscience
Course Code
NESC 3180
Professor
Shelly Adamo

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October 29th, 2012
October-29-12
12:37 PM
Immune-neural connections
Problem with BBB was that it means it prevents almost all the signals the immune system sends
from getting into the brain, in particular cytokines
And there's no lymph nodes in the brain, so it was initially believed there was no way for the
immune system to talk to the nervous system
But there are 4 basic routes:
o Afferent nerves sensitive to immune factors (Vagus nerve)
Sensitive to cytokines
Respond with increased neural activity
o Circumventricular organs (name for brain areas clustered beside the ventricles)
Have very thin or non-existent BBB in this area
Meaning things in the blood have easier time reaching these organs
These organs have receptors for both pathogens (TLRs) and for cytokines
If sensed, these cells can release cytokines into the rest of the brain
Are like blood taste sensors for the brain
o BBB, transporters for cytokines
o IL-1 receptors on endothelial cells of brain venules (cells of blood-brain barrier)
Kind of an indirect route
Instead of secreting cytokines into brain, produces prostaglandin E2, which tells the
brain that there are cytokines in the blood
o Not a lot of details are known about any of these routes as of yet
Microglia
o Are the brain's own macrophages
o Only live in brain
o Never leave brain
o Move around in brain, looking for pathogens
o Are mostly phagocytic
o Have receptors for cytokines, and amplify any cytokine signals that enter the brain
Chronic neuroinflammation
If you have all microglia in a region releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, eventually neurons in
that area will die
The microglia seem to play a role in all of the neurodegenerative diseases
Sickness Behaviour
When people given these cytokines for cancer therapy, there's a very powerful effect on sickness
behaviour
o Can be bad for cancer patients, for instance the decrease in appetite associated with
sickness behaviour is very bad
Illness induced anorexia, has to do with receptors in hypothalamus that have to do with food
intake
o Hypothalamus very important in control of feeding behaviour and drinking

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Description
October 29th, 2012 October-29-12 12:37 PM Immune-neural connections  Problem with BBB was that it means it prevents almost all the signals the immune system sends from getting into the brain, in particular cytokines  And there's no lymph nodes in the brain, so it was initially believed there was no way for the immune system to talk to the nervous system  But there are 4 basic routes: o Afferent nerves sensitive to immune factors (Vagus nerve)  Sensitive to cytokines  Respond with increased neural activity o Circumventricular organs (name for brain areas clustered beside the ventricles)  Have very thin or non-existent BBB in this area  Meaning things in the blood have easier time reaching these organs  These organs have receptors for both pathogens (TLRs) and for cytokines  If sensed, these cells can release cytokines into the rest of the brain  Are like blood taste sensors for the brain o BBB, transporters for cytokines o IL-1 receptors on endothelial cells of brain venules (cells of blood-brain barrier)  Kind of an indirect route  Instead of secreting cytokines into brain, produces prostaglandi2 E , which tells the brain that there are cytokines in the blood o Not a lot of details are known about any of these routes as of yet  Microglia o Are the brain's own macrophages o Only live in brain o Never leave brain o Move around in brain, looking for pathogens o Are mostly phagocytic o Have receptors for cytokines, and amplify any cytokine signals that enter the brain Chronic neuroinflammation  If you have all microglia in a region releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, eventually neurons in that area will die  The microglia seem to play a role in all of the neurodegenerative diseases Sickness Behaviour  When people given these cytokines for cancer therapy, there's a very powerful effect on sickness behaviour o Can be bad for cancer patients, for instance the decrease in appetite associated
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