NESC 3227 Lecture Notes - Temporal Lobe, Olfaction, Diffusion Mri

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Dalhousie University
Department
Neuroscience
Course
NESC 3227
Professor
February 7th, 2013
February-07-13
1:01 PM
Orbitofrontal frontal injury is common after blunt head injury
The movement associated with hitting your head can cause the shearing of nerve fibres
o Causing microscopic lesions, in particular in frontal and temporal areas
Olfactory pathways
Anosia had fairly good predictive value of who goes back to work
o As the brain goes forward and back it will shear off the olfactory nerves, causing the anosia
Why head injuries create orbitofrontal and anterior temporal lobe damage
There are sharp edges inside the skull that the brain will hit when it moves
o Possibly causing hematomas
Orbitofrontal lesions and divergent thinking
Divergent thinking impaired in these lesion patients
Ways of testing
o Fluency of speech (left prefrontal)
Individual given letter of alphabet, told to write as many words as possible that start
with that letter in 5 minutes
Low output in lesion patients
Then asked to write as many words that start with a letter but only 4 letters long
Low output and rule breaking in lesions patients
o Fluency in design (right prefrontal)
Told to draw as many nonsense figures as they can, can't repeat designs, in 5 minutes
Then told to draw nonsense figures using only 4 lines
Reduced output
Ventromedial frontal cortex and reversal learning in humans
Individuals with lesions to these areas have difficult time assessing the reward value of a stimulus,
and when the reward value changes, they have the difficulty making the change
Unable to change behaviour when stimulus contingency changes
Affective shifting
Two decks of cards, one deck is winners and one is losers
Once they learn the task, the winning deck then becomes the losing deck
o Ventromedial lesions have trouble with the reward switch involved here
Ventromedial shows many more errors than dorsolateral frontal
o Different because of the emotional component involved in this
Lesions that affected appreciation of humour
Right anterior frontal lesions diminished the amount people laughed (spontaneous affective
response)
o Areas 8, 9 and 10
Humour requires the integration of cognition and emotions
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Document Summary

Orbitofrontal frontal injury is common after blunt head injury. The movement associated with hitting your head can cause the shearing of nerve fibres: causing microscopic lesions, in particular in frontal and temporal areas. Anosia had fairly good predictive value of who goes back to work: as the brain goes forward and back it will shear off the olfactory nerves, causing the anosia. Why head injuries create orbitofrontal and anterior temporal lobe damage. There are sharp edges inside the skull that the brain will hit when it moves: possibly causing hematomas. Divergent thinking impaired in these lesion patients. Ways of testing: fluency of speech (left prefrontal) Individual given letter of alphabet, told to write as many words as possible that start with that letter in 5 minutes. Then asked to write as many words that start with a letter but only 4 letters long. Low output and rule breaking in lesions patients: fluency in design (right prefrontal)

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