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ChemDraw Assignment 222 Winter 2014.docx

12 Pages

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CHEM 222
Karine Auclair

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Terrestrial planets exam study notes: - Old midterm questions: - The age of the oldest mineral on earth, zircon is 4.4 billion years old - The age of the oldest rocks from the Acasta Gneiss Complex is about 4 billion years old - Oldest rocks found on the moon are about 4.44 billion years old - The sun’s process of energy is created by the fusion process which burns hydrogen into helium - The Big Bang produced a lot of hydrogen and helium with a little bit of lithium and beryllium within the FIRST FEW SECONDS - The Big Bang happened about 13.7 billion years ago - Our sun is a G2 yellow dwarf star - The “main-sequence” of stars according to the Hertzsprung-Russell is called the hydrogen-helium fusion stage, which is the stage in which our sun is in now - Absolute magnitude is the magnitude of the star itself, apparent magnitude is just what it seems like - The further away you are from the star, the less bright that it seems - The star closest to our sun is Proxima Centauri – it is invisible to the naked eye because it is a very small dim red dwarf star with an apparent magnitude of only 11.5 - Until 1928, it was thought that the Andromeda Galaxy was a nebular cloud that was another Solar System in early stages of forming - Henriette Leavit and Edwin Hubble discovered a type of star called the Cepheid variable in order to show that it was a large galaxy at a very great distance - The estimate of the number of stars in our galaxy is about 200 billion - The universe became transparent to light about 380 000 yrs ago - Heliocentric model of the solar system sees the solar system as if we were looking at the planets from the place with the sun at the centre - Hydrogen accounts for most of the mass in the solar system, it is mostly what the sun is made of - The sun accounts for 98% of the mass in the solar system - Oxygen is most abundant in the rocks of the earth and the outer part of the earth - Iron is the most common element on earth (mostly in the core) - Iron is found almost all in the earth’s core - The Andromeda Galaxy is a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way and it has about 200 billion stars - Geodynamo: liquid iron in the Earth’s outer core is driven into circulation by heat from below, liquid moves through the existing magnetic field, electric currents are induced which create the maintenance of the magnetic field - The Moon’s surface rocks have more iron than those on earth because a collision between the Earth and avery large impactor after the earth had already been largely differentiated - Our sun formed about 4.6 billion years ago when a nebular cloud of hydrogen, helium and a dust of minerals collapsed under gravity into a central proto-star that became our sun The four terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars and Earth) formed from mineral dusts and are made mostly (more than 90%) of iron, silicon, oxygen and magnesium These four elements form the mineral olivine - The asteroid belt is beyond Mars - Jupiter and Saturn are the gas giant planets - Uranus and Neptune are the water giant planets - Pluto is an ice dwarf planet - The Kuiper Belt: a belt of 200 million comets spreading from the orbit of Pluto out to 20x that distance from the Sun - The Oort Cloud extends almost halfway to the next closest star and is a spherical halo of several billion comets - Nemesis is a solar companion that has an orbital period of about 35 million years that is so dim that we cannot see it - Terrestrial planets condensed coldly and then heated up from the inside because of radioactive decay - This melted iron within a layered zone in the planets, lighter materials went to the surface - Iron is about 35% of the mass of the earth - Mercury has more iron than earth (55-65% of its mass) - Our moon is only about 10% iron - A mars-sized body collided with earth about 4.44 billion years ago, rocks on the surface of the moon have more iron - THE UNIQUE LAGISH LAKE METEORITE FELL ON A FROZEN LAKE IN NORTH BC IN January 2000 is important because it is thought to be an example of the most primitive meterials that made up our region of the solar nebula - By about 500 seconds after the BIG BANG, the nucleosynthesis explosion did a lot of different shit - THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH IS THE OLDEST CREATED MYTH - THE CONCORDANCE MODEL OF COSMOLOGY IS AN EXTENSION OF ALAN GUTH’S INFLATIONARY BIG BANG THAT ALLOWS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF DARK ENERGY - VON HELMHOLTZ says that the gravitational potential energy from the sun could account for the Sun’s radiance for a few 10s of millions of years - BEQUERELS DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY IN 1898 QUICKLY LED TO THE MEANS FOR PHYSICISTS to measure the age of ancient rocks based on their radioisotope content - DURING THE PERIOD OF A RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT’S CHARACTERISTIC HALF- LIFE ONE HALF OF ITS INITIAL NUMBER OF NUCLEI ARE EXPECTED TO DECAY - THE OLDEST MINERALS FOUND ON EARTH THAT CRYSTALLIZED ON EARTH ARE THE FAMOUS ZIRCONS FROM THE JACK HILL’S SEDIMENTS OF AUSTRALIA - IF A ZIRCON IN THE PORPOISE COVE TONALITES CRYSTRALLIZED FROM A MELT 3.8 BILLION YEARS AGO WITH A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF CARBON AR ATOMS WITH IT WHAT PROPORTION OF CARBON 14 WOULD BE LEFT? – NOT VERY MUCH AT ALL - 4.4 billion year old zircons were first found in Australia, they came from meteorites The Concordance Model of cosmology allows for acceleration of expansion driven by a mystical Dark Energy. - Bequerel discovred radioactivity in 1898, this - Half life means that half of the atoms will have decayed into other elements by the time given by the half life - The unique Tagish Lake meteorite that fell on the lake in North BC in 2000 is believed to represent the most primitive materials from the condensing solar nebula - 500 seconds after the Big Bang, the exploding universe is cool and expanded, hydrogen fusion stops, the nucleosynthetic process stops - We still have hot plasma at this point, the plasma is opaque for another 380 000 years until it cools enough for electrons to attach and positively charged nuclei to form - 380 000 years after the Big Bang, our universe first became transparent to light - The sun’s energy comes from fusing hydrogen into helium with its deep core - The age of a zircon crystal is that time past since - he half-life of a free neutron is only 12 minutes and so most have since decayed into - protons and electrons. - THIS IS WHY WE DO NOT HAVE FREE NEUTRONS ON EARTH - The rate of expansion of the universe is most consistent with the age of the universe which is 13.7 billion years - Copernicus and Galileo created the heliocentric view of the universe - Parallax triangulation is used to measure the distance of stars of distances of up to 300 parasecs - Each step in increasing the apparent magnitude of a star would make dim it by a factor of x2.5 - For example, a star with an apparent magnitude of 0 is 2.5x as bright than one with an apparent magnitude of 1 - Oldest rocks on the moon have been dated to about 4.44 billion years - Our sun is a G2 yellow dwarf star - The most comment element in our solar system is hydrogen - The earth moves most rapidly along its orbital path about the sun when it is closer and slower when it is further away - It moves fastest at the perihelion in early January and slowest at the aphelion in early July - In order to use half life to measure the age of a mineral crystal, one must take the number of nuclei and find out what its half life is, after that, you measure how many were originally there in the first place and figure out how many half lives it took for the nuclei to reach the number that they are at now, you multiply the number of half lives it took and then multiply that by the time of one half life and you get how long it takes - The gas that provides the strong greenhouse effect for Venus is CO2, its atmosphere is approximately 96% CO2 - The two most probable sources for water on Earth are the outgassing of hydrogen and oxygen from the earth’s interior during differentiation - Also, the cometary bombardment brought a lot of water to earth in its early history - Lunar eclipses are visible to everyone on earth because earth is very large in comparison with the moon and the full shadow from the earth is cast upon their entire moon - However, solar eclipses can only be seen by people on a very narrow path across the earth because the moon is very small and does not cast as large of a shadow upon the earth, therefore it is only seen on a very small plane - 2007 exam review: - 1. About 70% of all earthquakes occur along the subduction zones.About 10% occur within the - interior of tectonic plates well away from plate margins. Most of the remainder occur...where lithospheic plates are either separating or slipping past each other - lithospheric plates are those that comprise the fractured surface of the earth the moon is retreating from the earth at about 3.8 cm/yr because of 2. We have, since theApollo astronauts installed laser retro-reflecting mirrors on the surface of the Moon, measured the lengthening orbital period and (hence) the increasing distance between Earth and the Moon. The fact that the Moon is slowly retreating from the Earth at about 3.8 cm/yr is a consequence of: 1. a continuing transfer of mass from the Earth to the moon through quantum evaporation. 2. a natural evolution of planetary satellites towards becoming independent planets themselves. 3. a transfer of angular momentum from the Earth’s rotation to the moon’s orbital revolution as a consequence of tidal friction on the Earth. 4. “moonquakes”. 5. the Sun's dominant gravitational force which is slowly pulling the Moon away from Earth. - Other notes: - Planets rotate on their own axes - The same with the moons - The earth wobbles as it rotates - Larger planets generally take less time to rotate, with the exception of Venus, which takes 5832 earth hours to rotate - Venus rotates backwards - Rotating bodies stay in motion unless acted upon by external torque - Angular momentum determines the continuing tendency to rotate - When a body spins on an axle its gyroscopic action maintains its angular momentum vector fixed in inertial space - The moon creates torque on the axis of rotation and the earth precesses, this causes its 23 degree angular rotation - Only the earth has a big enough moon to create a lot of torque on its rotation - Mercury and Venus are the only planets that do not have moons and thus, no torque - Mars has very small moons so there is very little torque - Jupiter is close enough to apply strong torques though - Geophysics
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