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Lecture 3

HIST 203 Lecture 3: 1-19-2017 Development and Provincial Issues

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McGill University
HIST 203
John Zucchi

A Nation Develops Continued National Policy Money raised through tariffs In the 1870s a free trade movement developed but they found closed for with the US A very regionalist policy focused on opening up the west for agriculture but also manufacturing through protectionism Also an issue of class because National Policy expands immigration to cities, resulting in tension with unions worried about wages Farmers felt that the tariff caused issues for them by raising input prices Became a long lasting issue that divided East and West In part practicality by John MacDonald but also ingrained it as a philosophical position to promote manufacturing Promoted a VAT which taxes the margin of profit added at each stage Thus, it taxed each aspect of production and disadvantaged foreign producers Develops a home market for buyers and sellers Provincial Rights Start Some in Quebec and out East opposed Confederation on ground of rights Issues blew up in the 1880s Confederation-Act or Pact Act of parliament? Compact among BNA colonies at the Quebec conference, 1864? Division of Powers Sections 91-94 meant to only delegate local powers to provinces Listed 16 powers but was not meant to be comprehensive All residual powers went to the feds unlike in the US However their power was vague at Federal Powers Debt, trade, taxes, post, militia, shopping, banks and money, criminal law, Indians All matters of peace, offer, and governance Power of disallowance: federal government could strike down provincial legislation of it was outside provincial jurisdiction Provincial Powers Taxes, land, social services, civil rights, schools, justice in the province By the 1880s, PEI and BC were happy because they got better terms, but other provinces had demands Provincial Demands 1. Financing 2. Control over economic growth Ontario Unique place in Canada Oliver Mowat (1872-1876) One of the population centers and an economic hub that wanted to be more independent and unsupportive of other provinces mooching Mowat sometimes wanted his demands in Ottawa One issue was the Ontario Manitoba border in 1882 MacDonald wanted to cede to Manitoba a large chunk of land Land wasn't particularly useful but it was rumored to have gold maybe Ontario didn't want to give this land up Mowat didn't want the federal government interfering to cut down Ontario, even threatening secession MacDonald said it was a federal issue but the privy Court sided with Manitoba Another was the Rivers and Streams Act (1881) 2 parties were in a dispute, each from different parties Tory had bought part of a river and upgraded it to transport logs, but the Liberal wanted to use his upgrades--> Tory refused to let the Liberal use it and got an injunction to block the Liberal Privy Council gave a win to the Liberal Ontario allowed anybody to use a river but pay a fee if they wanted to use an improved
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