HIST 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Quebec Conference, 1864, Oliver Mowat, Tariffs In United States History

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A Nation Develops
Continued National Policy
Money raised through tariffs
In the 1870s a free trade movement developed but they found closed for with the US
A very regionalist policy focused on opening up the west for agriculture but also manufacturing
through protectionism
Also an issue of class because National Policy expands immigration to cities, resulting in tension
with unions worried about wages
Farmers felt that the tariff caused issues for them by raising input prices
Became a long lasting issue that divided East and West
In part practicality by John MacDonald but also ingrained it as a philosophical position to
promote manufacturing
Promoted a VAT which taxes the margin of profit added at each stage
Thus, it taxed each aspect of production and disadvantaged foreign producers
Develops a home market for buyers and sellers
Provincial Rights
Start
Some in Quebec and out East opposed Confederation on ground of rights
Issues blew up in the 1880s
Confederation-Act or Pact
Act of parliament?
Compact among BNA colonies at the Quebec conference, 1864?
Division of Powers
Sections 91-94 meant to only delegate local powers to provinces
Listed 16 powers but was not meant to be comprehensive
All residual powers went to the feds unlike in the US
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However their power was vague at
Federal Powers
Debt, trade, taxes, post, militia, shopping, banks and money, criminal law, Indians
All matters of peace, offer, and governance
Power of disallowance: federal government could strike down provincial legislation of it was
outside provincial jurisdiction
Provincial Powers
Taxes, land, social services, civil rights, schools, justice in the province
By the 1880s, PEI and BC were happy because they got better terms, but other provinces had
demands
Provincial Demands
1. Financing
2. Control over economic growth
Ontario
Unique place in Canada
Oliver Mowat (1872-1876)
One of the population centers and an economic hub that wanted to be more independent and
unsupportive of other provinces mooching
Mowat sometimes wanted his demands in Ottawa
One issue was the Ontario Manitoba border in 1882
MacDonald wanted to cede to Manitoba a large chunk of land
Land wasn't particularly useful but it was rumored to have gold maybe
Ontario didn't want to give this land up
Mowat didn't want the federal government interfering to cut down Ontario, even
threatening secession
MacDonald said it was a federal issue but the privy Court sided with Manitoba
Another was the Rivers and Streams Act (1881)
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Document Summary

In the 1870s a free trade movement developed but they found closed for with the us. A very regionalist policy focused on opening up the west for agriculture but also manufacturing through protectionism. Also an issue of class because national policy expands immigration to cities, resulting in tension with unions worried about wages. Farmers felt that the tariff caused issues for them by raising input prices. Became a long lasting issue that divided east and west. In part practicality by john macdonald but also ingrained it as a philosophical position to promote manufacturing. Promoted a vat which taxes the margin of profit added at each stage. Thus, it taxed each aspect of production and disadvantaged foreign producers. Develops a home market for buyers and sellers. Some in quebec and out east opposed confederation on ground of rights. Sections 91-94 meant to only delegate local powers to provinces. Listed 16 powers but was not meant to be comprehensive.

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