PHGY 210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Ovulation, Seminiferous Tubule, Spermatogenesis

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Addison"s disease hypofunction of adrenal cortex, due to atrophy of the cortex tissue. Most of unknown origin, but could be from advanced stage of tuberculosis. Reduced metabolism, lack of energy, lethargy due to lack of glucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoids shortage cause sodium level to go down, heart rate goes down, potassium goes up and ph goes down. Cushing"s disease hyperfunction, hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex increase circulating acth. Ion levels decrease (especially sodium), edema, puffy face. Treated by removing parts of the adrenal cortex. Most of the endocrine cells are called beta cells for insulin. The rest are alpha cells that produce glucagon. Insulin is more important since it is the only hormone that decreases blood sugar. Glucagon is replicable due to the presence of glucocorticoids. Insulin deficiency: beta cell decay lead to diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar, cells don"t get enough sugar. Denovoglucogenesis will produce glucose even with a glucose free diet.

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