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POLI 212- JANUARY 20.docx

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Political Science
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

JANUARY 20, 2012 th  Midterm: Monday, March 5  Democratic Republicanism: a turning point in European democratic history, a radical moment.  Democratic republicanism has a distinctive constitutional commitment. They want a republic, which was a radical commitment because it was a challenge to monarchical regimes, how Europe was organized.  The place and role of the catholic church in European society is that organized Catholicism is organized support for the monarchies, so republicanism is also therefore a challenge to Catholicism (it isn’t just about Catholicism in particular states, it is about the concern of the Catholic church in interstate society, because the papacy is an international action→ the papacy would sign international treaties or “concordats” with states. “Concordats,” from a catholic point of view are defined a “bilateral.”  This is not the first challenge to Republican in early or early-modern Europe→ Protestantism emerges as a heresy in Catholicism. Protestants in Europe came to accept constitutionally limited monarchs. The protestant challenge was compatible with living under a monarch (as long as there were constitutional limits). The Republican challenge to Catholicism and the monarchical principle is much more radical because they couldn’t reconcile themselves with a monarchical regime. The Republican Challenge emerged in places where the Protestant reformation did not take deep root (Republicanism as an alternative).  Republicans in the later stages of the French revolution really wanted a break with the past and wanted to disestablish the church. The church and state in France were not formally separated until 1904-1905. Republicans introduced a new calendar (wanted a complete rupture with the past) and they attempted to introduce what some call a civil religion→ a political substitute for Catholicism.  The French Revolution was incomplete: Republicanism was not powerful enough a force to establish Republican hegemony in France after the revolution. A counter- revolution emerged relatively quickly in the revolutionary period, and at the same time the forces of order (those with an interest protecting Catholicism, monarchy, etc.) didn’t have the power to roll back Republicans, producing a political stalemate. This was the key political cleavage in the post-revolutionary period (like Howards movement vs. order).  There is a clear sense of Democratic Republicanism that if it is to be preserved, it must be system wide. This is why monarchs in other parts of Europe feared the radical moment of the French Revolution, because it was a challenge to monarchs everywhere. It led Republicans to believe they should export the Revolution beyond France (which creates conflict between monarchs interested in self-preservation and Democratic Republicans).  Other commitments of Republicanism: a suspicion of standing armies (a suspicion of states that always have an army), particularly when they are staffed in part by mercenaries. The Republican alternative to standing armies is a citizen militia.  They were suspicious of “balance o
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