Class Notes (809,270)
Canada (493,607)
Psychology (3,199)
PSYC 332 (199)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

Lecture 10: 2013/02/07 Questions of the day: 1) How do psychologists measure attachment in children? 2) What impact does attachment have on later development? 3) Are out current relationships influenced by the kind of attachment we had with our mother (and father) as infants? The grand theory of John Bowlby - Attachment is “A complex instinctually guided behavioral system that has functioned throughout human evolution to protect infants from predators”  In terms of surviving, being fed, nourished, keeping safe - Series of things that allow infants to develop attachment  Sucking, grasping reflex, eye contact, smile, response to voice of parents, response to human face - Attachment is about maintaining proximity to people who make you feel safe/secure - Secondary proposition: Emotion regulation  Managing negative emotions (anger, fear, etc.) Only way we manage this is attachment with parents. Through interaction between parents, learn how to sue/cope with negative emotions Attachment in development - Normative patterns (At the age of 1, universally all infants form a bond with their parents) - Failure to attach (less than 1% mostly due to biological problems with child, autism) Autism - A developmental disorder involving deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted interests (fascinated by objects rather than humans) - “There is from the start an extreme autistic aloneness that, whenever possible, disregards, ignores, and shuts out anything that comes to the child from the outside.” - Core symptoms  Deficits in social interaction  Do not initiate/respond to social contact as babies  Do not establish eye contact, odd use of gaze (Even when they look at the face, they tend to look mouth rather than eyes. However, eyes are the one is needed to communicate emotions)  Impaired communication  Severe impairment of verbal and nonverbal communication  Restricted interests  Focus on small (non-social details of situation)  Stereotyped and repetitive play  Change of routine results in extreme agitation - 4-6 cases per 10,000 children - Males outnumber females 3 to 1 - Biological disorder with strong genetic basis (90% of the variance). Not sure genes - MZ twins 90%; DZ twin 10% - 1 sibling increases risk 7%; two siblings 35% Relation to Emotional development - Around 8 months, kids become very fearful to strangers and separation. However, this fear is normal - At this point, you can notice difference between children who are attached. - Stranger anxiety - Separation anxiety - Insecure attachment vs secure attachment How to assess infant attachment? - Strange situation for 12-18 months old by Mary Ainsworth  First, child get familiar with the setting and play with mom  Stranger comes in and mom leaves. How distress the child become?  Mom returns, and sees how the child behaves?  Secure attachment (65%): distressful, calm down, reassure  Avoidant attachment (20%): not distressful  Anxious attachment (15%): not calm down, reassure - Secure: trust, exploration, base - Insecure: distrust, anxiety, pessimism Another category? - D babies (disorganized attachment style)  Confused, unpredictable  Associated with child abuse and child neglect (Extreme family environment) Where do the differences come from? - 70% of attachment is related to mother’s behavior - Key study by Ainsworth 1985  Infant with 3 months old (no attachment)  Videotaped mother-infant interaction  Measure whether mother was responsive to crying, affection with holding, saying something when enter room, and feeding well  After a year, they systematically had all the infants doing strange situation  Coded the infants’attachment style  There was strong relationship between how mother behaved at 3 months and whether child is securely attached  The mother who are consistent, sensitive, responsive, attentive, and not interfering or controlling had kid with securely attached style  It is mother’s parenting behavior that is largely driving attachment process What developmental outcomes are associated with security of attachment? - Tracked the kids who had been in strange situation (reliable, v
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 332

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.