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McMaster University
Skowronski, Capretta, Dodds

Chapter 1; Personal Effectiveness Learning and Personal Improvement - Only those who can first manage themselves will ultimately be able to effectively manage others. - Great management is often as much about not acting on misconceptions, and avoiding what not to do, as it is about expertly pursuing a course of action. Social Learning Theory: learning of any new behaviour is the result of 3 main factors – the person, the environment, and the behaviour – and they all influence each other. - This mutual influence is referred to as reciprocal determinism and is at the root of the social learning theory. - Most learning is done through observation and modeling of the behaviours of others. - 4 critical components required to learn through observation, and these are the key building blocks of the most successful management training methods used in organizations today: - Attention: first challenge of learning is to focus. Find the right models and devote undivided attention to them. o Critical you isolate as specifically as possible the behaviours you hope to learn. - Retention: must be able to understand and remember what you have observed. Coding what we observe into words, labels, or images results in better retention than simply observing. o Real learning comes from understanding the underlying principles that made the behaviours effective and being able to recall and translate those principles when appropriate. - Reproduction: importance of practice, or actual demonstration, of a skill. Must translate the images and descriptions into actual behaviour. o Feedback is essential for learning or developing any kind of skill. - Motivation: must be motivated to persist and stay with it. o Motivation may stem from past reinforcement, promised reinforcements that you can imagine, or vicarious reinforcement. o May also use punishements for failure to achieve your learning goals. Self-Management: a process of modifying one’s own behaviour by systematically altering how we arrange different cues in our world, how we think about what we hope to change, and how we attach behavioural consequences to our actions. 1. Self-Observation/Exploration: Observe and collect information about the specific behaviours you have targeted for change. o Determining when, why, and under what conditions you currently use certain behaviours. o Viewing mistakes as learning opportunities builds a foundation for further learning. Mistakes can prompt us to look inward and evaluate our limitations and shortcomings. 2. Self-Set Goals: Determine what more effective behaviour is (often by observing effective models) and set specific goals for your own behaviours. Studies have shoen that setting goals works because: o In committing to a goal, a person devotes attention toward goal-relevant activities and away from goal-irrelevant activities. o Goals energize people. Challenging goals lead to higher effort than easy goals. o Goals affect persistence. High goals prolong effort, and tight deadlines lead to more rapid work pace than loose deadlines. o Goals motivate people to use their knowledge to help them attain the goal and to discover the knowledge needed to obtain it. 3. Management of Cues: Organize your work environment to assist you in performing the behaviours you want to change. o Create reminders and attention focusers you will notice and act on. 4. Positive Self-Talk and Rehearsal: Go over the behaviour in your head and imagine successful application. Actually practice the new behaviour at available opportunities and seek feedback. o You must practice and rehearse any new skill for it to ultimately become part of your repertoire. o Create a frame of mind that energizes your self confidence and gets you beyond self- defeating and negative feelings that can accompany learning difficult tasks. 5. Self Reward and Punishment: Provide yourself with personality valued rewards that are linked to performing desirable behaviours or with punishments linked to undesirable behaviours. o Punishment does not work as well as reinforcement. Building Self-Awareness - The best mangers are not only consistently seeking feedback to know themselves better and what areas they need to improve, but also to isolate their personal strengths and preferences so they can best position themselves for success. - Recognizing our own differences is important because they impact how we react and behave in different situations. From a managerial performance perspective, the 2 most important categories of differences are: 1. Ability: what a person is capable of doing. Come in many dimensions and include cognitive ability, physical ability, and emotional ability. 2. Personality: the pattern of relativity enduring ways in which a person thinks, actis, and behaves. Determined both by nature and nurture and tends to represent our “dominant” or “natural” behaviour. o Fundamental error to assume that behaviour is solely a function of one’s personality since the environment will always play a role as well. The Essential Managerial Assessment Profile Self-Awareness Ability, Personality or Examples of Commonly Implication Dimension Preference? Used Assessment Tools Cognitive Ability (criticaAbility to recognize Watson-Glaser Critical Is cognitive ability a and analytical thinking quantitative and verbal Thinking Test strength or an area to patterns quickly and supplement with the accurately. Includes the Wonderlic Personnel help of others? What ability to acquire Test types of jobs and knowledge. industries suit my analytical ability? Emotional Intelligence Ability to accurately MSCEIT Do I understand and recognize and use emotion to make understand emotions in effectiveness decisions? others and self and to Can I relate to people use emotional well because I information appropriately read their productively. emotional states? Cultural Intelligence Ability to function Cultural Quotient Scale Am I aware of effectively in the important cultural context of differences differences? Do I understand and act in ways that will value those differences and create stronger relationships. Personality Traits Primary personality Big 5 Inventory What are my dominant characteristics that personality traits? How remain relatively stable do I maximize my fit to over one’s life best utilize my personality? Personality Preferences Preference for direction Myers-Briggs Type How do I like to work (temperament) of energy, decision- Indicator with others and process making, information information? What do I acquisition, and look for in others to orientation to the outer complement my world. preferences? How will I best interact in different team
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