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7. 4KF3 Ch. 6 Developing a Project Plan.docx

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Department
Commerce
Course
COMMERCE 4KF3
Professor
Steve Way
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3 Lecture Notes Project Scheduling Process PMBOK 1. Define activities 2. Sequence Activities 3. Estimate Activity Resources 4. Estimate Activity Durations 5. Develop Schedule 6. Control Schedule Define Activities The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.  Inputs – WBS – Scope baseline plan – Organizational policies and processes  Activity is an element of a project that consumes time – work or waiting Creating Networks  Is the most important activity in project planning  Consists of identifying relationships between activities WBS Example Page 1 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3 WBS and OBS Integration WBS to Network Terminology  Merge activity – activity with more than one predecessor  Parallel activities  Path  Critical path – sequence of activities with no slack Page 2 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3  Event – moment in time  Burst Activity – has more than one successor Creating Networks Basic Network Building Rules 1. Networks flow from left to right 2. An activity cannot begin until all the preceding activities have been completed 3. Arrows indicate precedence and flow 4. Activities should have unique identifier numbers 5. Activity numbers should be larger than preceding activity numbers 6. Looping is not allowed 7. Conditional statements are not allowed 8. Use a common start node and a common end node AON Fundamentals Page 3 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3 Network Information Example Activity Legend - *Include a legend each time because not everyone uses this format ES: Earliest time you can start the activity and still complete the project as scheduled EF: Earliest finish that the activity can have and still complete the project as scheduled LS: Latest time you can start the activity and still complete the project as scheduled LF: Latest finish that the activity can have and still complete the project as scheduled Forward Pass Process  Add activity times along each path – (Early start + duration = Early Finish)  Carry the early finish to the successor activities  EF of predecessors becomes ES of successors  At merge activities, the largest EF becomes the ES Backward Pass Process  Begin at the end and work your way toward the beginning  Calculate late start times along each path – Late start = late finish – duration  Carry the late start to the predecessor activities Page 4 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3  LS of successors becomes LF of predecessors  At burst activities, choose smallest LS for LF Network Information Example When there are a lot of paths with close to no slack, we say that the network is “sensitive” because delays have a bigger impact. Gantt Charts Page 5 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3 Slack Example Total Slack: how much slack an activity has without affecting the entire process Free Slack: how much slack an activity has without affecting the next activity Laddering  We assume that tasks cannot start until the predecessor starts  Sometimes they can be done concurrently – E.g. Dig trench, insert pipeline, fill trench Hammocks: activities that connect sections of the network to show how resources are required Finish to Start  Is the normal type of relationship  In the forward pass, add the lag to the ES of the success activity  ES successor = EF predecessor + lag Page 6 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3 Finish to Finish  The successor can begin before the FF predecessor ends  The successor cannot end until after the FF predecessor ends  EF of successor = EF of predecessor + lag  In this case, the testing team can start testing subsystems before the prototype is complete. It takes four days to test the completed prototype. Consequently, testing cannot end until four days after the prototype is complete. *It is impossible to complete testing without the prototype being finished. The successor (testing) can begin before the predecessor (prototype) ends. But the successor cannot finish until the predecessor ends. Start to Start  The successor activity can begin after a portion of the predecessor activity has been accomplished  The successor activity does not have to wait until the predecessor is complete  ES of the successor = ES of predecessor + lag Page 7 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3 Start to Finish  The finish of an activity depends on the start of another.  Documentation cannot end until after testing has started.  EF successor = ES predecessor + lag Activity‐on‐Arrow Networks  Arrows – are used to represent activities  Nodes – represent events (such as the start or beginning of an activity)  Each activity is represented by one arrow and only one arrow. Dummy Activities  In AOA networks arrows do double duty; – Arrows signify activities – Arrows depict relationships  Problem: What happens when you want to depict a relationship but not an activity? o Use Dummy Activities Dummy Activities – represent relationships but not work or time AOA Network Development  Start with „start‟ node/event.  Draw an arrow for each activity  Use nodes to represent the end of each activity Page 8 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3 AOA Diagram Forward and Backward Passes Page 9 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan4KF3 Page 10 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan4KF3 Page 11 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan4KF3 Page 12 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3 AOA Strengths and Weaknesses  Strengths: – AOA is well accepted in some fields (like construction) – AOA event nodes are easy to identify and flag  Weaknesses: – Employs awkward conventions (like dummy activities) – AOA networks are information intensive – Don‟t track lead/lag times easily Controversies with Networks 1. Networks can become too complex to be meaningful  Simplify network logic to obvious or meaningful relationships 2. Faulty reasoning leading to oversimplification  Large projects are managed at many levels in the organization  When lower level information is aggregated it can get oversimplified 3. Networks can be used where they shouldn‟t be  Do not use networks to plan operations 4. Coordinating Subcontractors  Allow subcontractors to access main contractors network  Use common network techniques and timeframes 5. Potential for positive bias in duration estimates Reading Notes Developing the Project Network  The project network is the tool used for planning, scheduling, and monitoring project progress.  The network is developed from the information collected for the WBS and is a graphic flow chart of the project job plan.  The network is a visual flow diagram that depicts the project activities that must be completed, logical sequences, the interdependencies of the activities to be completed, and the activities to start and finish along with the longest path(s) through the network: the critical path Page 13 of 18 Chapter 6: Developing a Project Plan 4KF3  Important (but not for small, short-duration initiatives)  Represents ¾ of the planning process From Work Package to Network  Project networks are developed from the WBS  Activity: an element in the project that consumes time – for example, work or waiting  Activities are sequenced  Networks are built using nodes (boxes) and arrows (lines) o Node is an activity o Arrow shows dependency and work flow  Integrating often fails because o Different people define the work activities o The WBS is poorly constructed  The manager derives activity time estimates from the task times in the work package  Early and late times: for time-phased budgeting Constructing a Project Network Terminology Activity An element of the project that requires time  It may or may not require resources.  Usually represent one or more tasks in a work package Merge Activity An activity that has more than one activity immediately preceding it Parallel Activities Activities that can take place at the same time if the manager wishes Path A sequence of connected, dependant activities Critical Path The path(s) with the longest duration through the network; if an activity on the path is delayed, the project is delayed the same amount of time Event A point in time when an activity is started or completed  Does not consume time Burst Activity Has more than one activity immediately following it Two Approaches  Activity-on-node (AON) o Uses a node to depict an activity
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