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Lecture 32

GEOG 3RW3 Lecture 32: Geography 3RW3 - Lecture 32 - Bangladesh: Part 2

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McMaster University
Segei Basik

Geography 3RW3 – Dr. Basik – Page 1 Lecture 32 – Tuesday March 24 Bangladesh: Part 2 Introduction • Textiles • Horrible working conditions • Bad system in general – problems in this country • The people with big money are the problem Natural Hazards and Population at Risk • Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world • Bangladesh is exposed to threat of hazards resulting from a number of natural disasters and remains classified as one the most vulnerable countries • Majority of the country is affected by cyclones, drought, floods, tornadoes, river bank erosion, landslides • An average more than 7.6 million people a year have been affected by natural disasters in Bangladesh over the last 10 years • Flooding has had the largest impact, affecting more than 60 million people between 2004 and 2013 • Bangladesh ranks 1 in the world in the context of human exposure in flood hazard zones: • About 75% of country is less than 10m above sea level and 80% is a flood plain • The flood damage potential causes: • Climate change • Urban concentration in the three river basins • Encroaching of settlements into flood prone areas • Overreliance on the safety provided by flood control works (levees, reservoirs) • There are two types of floods which occur in Bangladesh: • Annual floods (barsha) that inundate up to 20% of the land area • Low frequency floods of high magnitude that inundate more than 35% of the area (bonna) Economic Growth • GDP growth has comfortably exceeded population growth resulting in a healthy increase in per capita GDP • Over the two decades 1980-2000, Bangladesh’s GDP increased four times over whereas population increased by about 45% • The more recent period suggests that GDP has increased at an average rate of about 6% annually • The economy of Bangladesh is led by export-oriented industrialization • Country has now emerged as an important manufacturing base for textile products, pharmaceuticals, finished leathers, light and medium industries, shipbuilding • The country’s clothing industry has 5,000 factories (compared with 2,500 in Indonesia; 2,000 in Vietnam) Geography 3RW3 – Dr. Basik – Page 2 • Labour costs less than any of its Asian rivals’ (minimum wage – USD 68, December 2013) • Bangladesh’s clothing industry is forecast to quadruple in size over the next 20 years • It already employs more than 4 million, mostly women • Unless productivity rises sharply, millions more women will be drawn from their homes into the workplace – a drastic change in a conservative society • Image: The Rana Plaza clothing factory near Dhaka collapsed in 2013. At least 1100 people were killed. The western clothing companies came under pressure to improve safety and working conditions in the workshop they buy from. • Globalization and modern economy Remittances and Official Development Assistance • About 8.6 million Bangladeshi workers currently working abroad (91% – blue collar workers; India, Persian Gulf, South-East Asia) • Remittances account fth more than 75% of overall financial inflows to Bangladesh • Bangladesh is the 7 largest recipient of remittanc
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