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1XO3_Research Method 1&2.docx

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Joe Kim

Research Method 1 & 2 Introduction to Scientific Research  Scientific Method has seven step for how to collect and analyze information while trying to minimize biases,conflicts or oversights. Scientists begin by studying the existing work published by other scientists. This information helps them make a theory. 1. Construct a theory  Theory: General set of ideas about the way the world works. The theory then leads to a hypothesis. 2. Generate hypothesis  Hypothesis: testable statement guided by theories that make specific predictions about the relationship between variables. 3. Choose research method  Research method: the way in which the hypothesis will be tested 4. Collect data  Taking measurements of the outcome of the tests 5. Analyze data  Understanding the data and discover trends or relationships between the variables 6. Report the findings  Publish articles in scholarly journals 7. Revise existing theories  To include new information onto our understanding of the world Conducting an Experiment  Anecdotal evidence: evidence gathered from other or self experience.  Experiment: scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another  Independent Variable: Variable manipulated by the scientist.  Dependent Variable: Variable being observed by the scientist. Control Groups  A well designed control group is an important part of the experimental design.  Experimental group: will receive the manipulation of the independent variable.  Control group: is not given treatment  Within-Subjects Design: Manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent measure.  Practise Effect: improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced.  Between Subjects Design: one group of participants receive experimental manipulation. And One group acts as the control group.  Confounding Variable: a variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results. Sampling  Population: the general group of people we are trying to learn about.  Sample: selected members of the population that we actually collect data from.  Random Sample: choosing a sample at random from the entire population. Prevent bias.  Random Assortment: assigning subjects to either the experimental or control group at random to avoid any biases that may cause differences between the group of subjects. Conducting An Experiment  Placebo Effect: effect that occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect.  Participant Bias: When a participant's actions in actions in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulations of the experimenter. Research Method 1 & 2  Blinding: when participants do not know whether they belong to the experimental or control group, or which treatment they ar
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