Research Method 1 & 2
Introduction to Scientific Research
Scientific Method has seven step for how to collect and analyze information while trying to minimize
biases,conflicts or oversights. Scientists begin by studying the existing work published by other scientists.
This information helps them make a theory.
1. Construct a theory
Theory: General set of ideas about the way the world works. The theory then leads to a
2. Generate hypothesis
Hypothesis: testable statement guided by theories that make specific predictions about
the relationship between variables.
3. Choose research method
Research method: the way in which the hypothesis will be tested
4. Collect data
Taking measurements of the outcome of the tests
5. Analyze data
Understanding the data and discover trends or relationships between the variables
6. Report the findings
Publish articles in scholarly journals
7. Revise existing theories
To include new information onto our understanding of the world
Conducting an Experiment
Anecdotal evidence: evidence gathered from other or self experience.
Experiment: scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another
Independent Variable: Variable manipulated by the scientist.
Dependent Variable: Variable being observed by the scientist.
A well designed control group is an important part of the experimental design.
Experimental group: will receive the manipulation of the independent variable.
Control group: is not given treatment
Within-Subjects Design: Manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the
effect of external variables on the dependent measure.
Practise Effect: improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more
Between Subjects Design: one group of participants receive experimental manipulation. And One group
acts as the control group.
Confounding Variable: a variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results.
Population: the general group of people we are trying to learn about.
Sample: selected members of the population that we actually collect data from.
Random Sample: choosing a sample at random from the entire population. Prevent bias.
Random Assortment: assigning subjects to either the experimental or control group at random to avoid
any biases that may cause differences between the group of subjects.
Conducting An Experiment
Placebo Effect: effect that occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related
Participant Bias: When a participant's actions in actions in an experiment influence the results outside of
the manipulations of the experimenter. Research Method 1 & 2
Blinding: when participants do not know whether they belong to the experimental or control group, or which
treatment they ar