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Lecture 13

2Z03 Lecture 13 "Scale Construction".docx

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Gerald Bierling

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Fox 1 Lecture 13 SOCIOL 2Z03 Monday March 3, 2014 Scale Construction rd Continued from last lecture – March 3 , 2014 ­ which items should be worth more? ­ Thurstone Scales: process used to identify the logical structure of indicators o ‘judges’ are given a large # of statements (80-100) o judges can be students in a large class, colleges in academic departments o asked to rate the degree to which each statement indicates favourability towards subject on a scale of 1 to 13 (eg. Immigrants work hard; immigrants do jobs we won’t, etc.) o statements are organized into 13 piles based on most agreement o one statement is selected from each pile and given value of 1 to 13 o assign numerical value to each one of these statements o these 13 statements are used in the survey ­ Benefit: helps identify ordering of statements ­ Limitation: very time consuming; who are the judges? Also a lot of potential statements Typologies ­ Typology – the classification of observations in terms of their attributes on two or more variables ­ Eg. Views social policies and economic policies Social Liberal Social Conservative Economic liberal Economic conservative ­ May be economically conservative but socially liberal, typologies help describe these situations and variation in sample ­ Help us identify different types of respondents/cases The Logic of Sampling (New Lecture) ­ Purpose of Sampling ­ Non-probability/Non-random Sampling ­ Sampling Terminology ­ Probability/Random Sampling ­ Sampling Error & Sampling Distribution Purpose of Sampling ­ Rarely are we able to gather information about the entire population ­ No time/money o Exception – census ­ So we need methods to gather a sample ­ Two types of sampling methods: o Non-random (non-probability) – least likely to be representative of population o Random (Probability) – most likely to be representative, and allow us to estimate population values Non-random sampling ­ Samples are selected in some way not suggested by probability theory ­ How we select people not based on probability o Accidental/Convenience – choose most convenient subject; self-selected subjects  Eg. Call-in polls, surveys on websites, select themselves to take part  Only certain people who self-select, people with extreme opinions, in favor of or opposition to – by definition not really representative of population, cant put a lot of faith in these respondents o Purposive sampling – selected on basis of their usefulness or representativeness  Eg. ArcelorMittal workers – working in steel industry, may not have a lot of research money or assistance which would allow to send researchers across country to interview, large amount at one company, those workers may represent a larger population of steel workers o Snowball sampling -- for population that are difficult to locate; through references,
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